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   1  <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN">
   2  <html>
   3  <head>
   4  <title>GNU General Public License - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)</title>
   5  <link rev="made" href="mailto:webmasters@www.gnu.org">
   6  <base href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html">
   7  </head>
   8  <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#1F00FF" alink="#FF0000" vlink="#9900DD">
   9  <h1>GNU General Public License</h1>
  10  <a href="/graphics/philosophicalgnu.html"><img src="/graphics/philosophical-gnu-sm.jpg"
  11     alt=" [image of a Philosophical GNU] "
  12     width="160" height="200"></a>
  13  
  14  <!-- Please keep this list alphabetical -->
  15  <!-- tower, gpl.ja.html is Japanese translation of THIS PAGE, -->
  16  <!-- NOT translation of GPL itself (gpl.ja.html contains the original -->
  17  <!-- English version). So please do not remove the following. -->
  18  <!-- Thanks -mhatta -->
  19  <!-- The same for the Czech page. The entire text of GPL is not -->
  20  <!-- translated on this page. Thanks Sisao -->
  21  
  22  [
  23    <a href="/licenses/gpl.cs.html">Czech</a>
  24  | <a href="/licenses/gpl.html">English</a>
  25  | <a href="/licenses/gpl.ja.html">Japanese</a>
  26  ]
  27  
  28  <!-- It is best to not enumerate the translations here in a menu bar, -->
  29  <!-- It is best to have the users follow this link, so they have the FSF' -->
  30  <!-- explanation about translations being unofficial, etc. -->
  31  
  32  <p>
  33  <ul>
  34    <li><a href="/licenses/gpl-violation.html"><em>What to do if you see a
  35         possible GPL violation</em></a>
  36    <li><a href="/licenses/translations.html"><em>Translations
  37         of the GPL</em></a>
  38    <li><a href="/licenses/gpl-faq.html"><em>GPL Frequently Asked Questions</em></a>
  39    <li>The GNU General Public License (GPL)
  40         <a href="/licenses/gpl.txt">in plain text format</a>
  41    <li>The GNU General Public License (GPL)
  42         <a href="/licenses/gpl.texi">in Texinfo format</a>
  43  </ul>
  44  <p>
  45  <hr>
  46  
  47  <p>
  48  
  49  <h2>Table of Contents</h2>
  50  <ul>
  51  
  52    <li><a name="TOC1" href="gpl.html#SEC1">GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE</a>
  53  <ul>
  54  <li><a name="TOC2" href="gpl.html#SEC2">Preamble</a>
  55  <li><a name="TOC3" href="gpl.html#SEC3">TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION</a>
  56  <li><a name="TOC4" href="gpl.html#SEC4">How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs</a>
  57  
  58  </ul>
  59  </ul>
  60  
  61  <p>
  62  
  63  <hr>
  64  
  65  <p>
  66  
  67  <h2><a name="SEC1" href="gpl.html#TOC1">GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE</a></h2>
  68  <p>
  69  Version 2, June 1991
  70  
  71  </p>
  72  
  73  <pre>
  74  Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  75  59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA
  76  
  77  Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
  78  of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
  79  </pre>
  80  
  81  <h2><a name="SEC2" href="gpl.html#TOC2">Preamble</a></h2>
  82  
  83  <p>
  84    The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
  85  freedom to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public
  86  License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
  87  software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
  88  General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
  89  Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
  90  using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
  91  the GNU Library General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
  92  your programs, too.
  93  
  94  </p>
  95  <p>
  96    When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
  97  price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
  98  have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
  99  this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
 100  if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
 101  in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
 102  
 103  </p>
 104  <p>
 105    To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
 106  anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
 107  These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
 108  distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
 109  
 110  </p>
 111  <p>
 112    For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
 113  gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
 114  you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
 115  source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their
 116  rights.
 117  
 118  </p>
 119  <p>
 120    We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
 121  (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
 122  distribute and/or modify the software.
 123  
 124  </p>
 125  <p>
 126    Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
 127  that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
 128  software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
 129  want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
 130  that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
 131  authors' reputations.
 132  
 133  </p>
 134  <p>
 135    Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
 136  patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
 137  program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
 138  program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
 139  patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
 140  
 141  </p>
 142  <p>
 143    The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
 144  modification follow.
 145  
 146  </p>
 147  
 148  <h2><a name="SEC3" href="gpl.html#TOC3">TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION</a></h2>
 149  
 150  <p>
 151  
 152  <strong>0.</strong>
 153   This License applies to any program or other work which contains
 154  a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
 155  under the terms of this General Public License.  The "Program", below,
 156  refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
 157  means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
 158  that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
 159  either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
 160  language.  (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
 161  the term "modification".)  Each licensee is addressed as "you".
 162  <p>
 163  
 164  Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
 165  covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act of
 166  running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
 167  is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
 168  Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
 169  Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
 170  
 171  <p>
 172  
 173  <strong>1.</strong>
 174   You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
 175  source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
 176  conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
 177  copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
 178  notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
 179  and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
 180  along with the Program.
 181  <p>
 182  
 183  You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
 184  you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
 185  <p>
 186  
 187  <strong>2.</strong>
 188   You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
 189  of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
 190  distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
 191  above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
 192  <p>
 193  
 194  <ul>
 195  
 196  <li><strong>a)</strong>
 197       You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
 198       stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
 199  
 200  <p>
 201  <li><strong>b)</strong>
 202       You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
 203       whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
 204       part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
 205       parties under the terms of this License.
 206  
 207  <p>
 208  <li><strong>c)</strong>
 209       If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
 210       when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
 211       interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
 212       announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
 213       notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
 214       a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
 215       these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
 216       License.  (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
 217       does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
 218       the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
 219  </ul>
 220  
 221  These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
 222  identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
 223  and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
 224  themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
 225  sections when you distribute them as separate works.  But when you
 226  distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
 227  on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
 228  this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
 229  entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
 230  <p>
 231  
 232  Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
 233  your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
 234  exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
 235  collective works based on the Program.
 236  <p>
 237  
 238  In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
 239  with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
 240  a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
 241  the scope of this License.
 242  
 243  <p>
 244  
 245  <strong>3.</strong>
 246   You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
 247  under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
 248  Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
 249  
 250  <!-- we use this doubled UL to get the sub-sections indented, -->
 251  <!-- while making the bullets as unobvious as possible. -->
 252  <ul>
 253  
 254  <li><strong>a)</strong>
 255       Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
 256       source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
 257       1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
 258  
 259  <p>
 260  <li><strong>b)</strong>
 261       Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
 262       years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
 263       cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
 264       machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
 265       distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
 266       customarily used for software interchange; or,
 267  
 268  <p>
 269  <li><strong>c)</strong>
 270       Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
 271       to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
 272       allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
 273       received the program in object code or executable form with such
 274       an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
 275  </ul>
 276  
 277  The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
 278  making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete source
 279  code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
 280  associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
 281  control compilation and installation of the executable.  However, as a
 282  special exception, the source code distributed need not include
 283  anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
 284  form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
 285  operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
 286  itself accompanies the executable.
 287  <p>
 288  
 289  If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
 290  access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
 291  access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
 292  distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
 293  compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
 294  <p>
 295  
 296  <strong>4.</strong>
 297   You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
 298  except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
 299  otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
 300  void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
 301  However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
 302  this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
 303  parties remain in full compliance.
 304  
 305  <p>
 306  
 307  <strong>5.</strong>
 308   You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
 309  signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
 310  distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions are
 311  prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
 312  modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
 313  Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
 314  all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
 315  the Program or works based on it.
 316  
 317  <p>
 318  
 319  <strong>6.</strong>
 320   Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
 321  Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
 322  original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
 323  these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
 324  restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
 325  You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
 326  this License.
 327  
 328  <p>
 329  
 330  <strong>7.</strong>
 331   If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
 332  infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
 333  conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
 334  otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
 335  excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot
 336  distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
 337  License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
 338  may not distribute the Program at all.  For example, if a patent
 339  license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
 340  all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
 341  the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
 342  refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
 343  <p>
 344  
 345  If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
 346  any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
 347  apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
 348  circumstances.
 349  <p>
 350  
 351  It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
 352  patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
 353  such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
 354  integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
 355  implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
 356  generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
 357  through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
 358  system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
 359  to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
 360  impose that choice.
 361  <p>
 362  
 363  This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
 364  be a consequence of the rest of this License.
 365  
 366  <p>
 367  
 368  <strong>8.</strong>
 369   If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
 370  certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
 371  original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
 372  may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
 373  those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
 374  countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this License incorporates
 375  the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
 376  
 377  <p>
 378  
 379  <strong>9.</strong>
 380   The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
 381  of the General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
 382  be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
 383  address new problems or concerns.
 384  <p>
 385  
 386  Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Program
 387  specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
 388  later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
 389  either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
 390  Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of
 391  this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
 392  Foundation.
 393  
 394  <p>
 395  
 396  <strong>10.</strong>
 397   If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
 398  programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
 399  to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by the Free
 400  Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
 401  make exceptions for this.  Our decision will be guided by the two goals
 402  of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
 403  of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
 404  
 405  <p><strong>NO WARRANTY</strong></p>
 406  
 407  <p>
 408  
 409  <strong>11.</strong>
 410   BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
 411  FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN
 412  OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
 413  PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
 414  OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
 415  MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS
 416  TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE
 417  PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
 418  REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
 419  
 420  <p>
 421  
 422  <strong>12.</strong>
 423   IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
 424  WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
 425  REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
 426  INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
 427  OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
 428  TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
 429  YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
 430  PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
 431  POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
 432  
 433  <p>
 434  
 435  <h2>END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS</h2>
 436  
 437  <h2><a name="SEC4" href="gpl.html#TOC4">How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs</a></h2>
 438  
 439  <p>
 440    If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
 441  possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
 442  free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
 443  
 444  </p>
 445  <p>
 446    To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
 447  to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
 448  convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
 449  the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
 450  
 451  </p>
 452  
 453  <pre>
 454  <var>one line to give the program's name and an idea of what it does.</var>
 455  Copyright (C) <var>yyyy</var>  <var>name of author</var>
 456  
 457  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
 458  modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
 459  as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
 460  of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 461  
 462  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 463  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 464  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 465  GNU General Public License for more details.
 466  
 467  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 468  along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 469  Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.
 470  </pre>
 471  
 472  <p>
 473  Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
 474  
 475  </p>
 476  <p>
 477  If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
 478  when it starts in an interactive mode:
 479  
 480  </p>
 481  
 482  <pre>
 483  Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) <var>year</var> <var>name of author</var>
 484  Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
 485  type `show w'.  This is free software, and you are welcome
 486  to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c'
 487  for details.
 488  </pre>
 489  
 490  <p>
 491  The hypothetical commands <samp>`show w'</samp> and <samp>`show c'</samp> should show
 492  the appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the
 493  commands you use may be called something other than <samp>`show w'</samp> and
 494  <samp>`show c'</samp>; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever
 495  suits your program.
 496  
 497  </p>
 498  <p>
 499  You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
 500  school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
 501  necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:
 502  
 503  </p>
 504  
 505  <pre>
 506  Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright
 507  interest in the program `Gnomovision'
 508  (which makes passes at compilers) written
 509  by James Hacker.
 510  
 511  <var>signature of Ty Coon</var>, 1 April 1989
 512  Ty Coon, President of Vice
 513  </pre>
 514  
 515  <p>
 516  This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
 517  proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you may
 518  consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
 519  library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
 520  Public License instead of this License.
 521  
 522  <hr>
 523  
 524  Return to <a href="/home.html">GNU's home page</a>.
 525  <p>
 526  FSF &amp; GNU inquiries &amp; questions to
 527  <a href="mailto:gnu@gnu.org"><em>gnu@gnu.org</em></a>.
 528  Other <a href="/home.html#ContactInfo">ways to contact</a> the FSF.
 529  <p>
 530  Comments on these web pages to
 531  <a href="mailto:webmasters@www.gnu.org"><em>webmasters@www.gnu.org</em></a>,
 532  send other questions to
 533  <a href="mailto:gnu@gnu.org"><em>gnu@gnu.org</em></a>.
 534  <p>
 535  Copyright notice above.<br />
 536  Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
 537  59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111,  USA
 538  <p>
 539  Updated:
 540  <!-- hhmts start -->
 541  Last modified: Sun Jul 15 13:13:30 CEST 2001
 542  <!-- hhmts end -->
 543  <hr>
 544  </body>
 545  </html>

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