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  16  
  17  <h2>ADOdb Library for PHP</h2>
  18  <p>V4.61 24 Feb 2005 (c) 2000-2005 John Lim (jlim#natsoft.com)</p>
  19  <p><font size="1">This software is dual licensed using BSD-Style and LGPL. This 
  20    means you can use it in compiled proprietary and commercial products.</font></p>
  21    
  22  
  23      <p>Useful ADOdb links:  <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#download">Download</a> &nbsp; <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#docs">Other Docs</a>
  24  
  25  </p><p><a href="#intro"><b>Introduction</b></a><b><br>
  26      <a href="#features">Unique Features</a><br>
  27      <a href="#users">How People are using ADOdb</a><br>
  28      <a href="#bugs">Feature Requests and Bug Reports</a><br>
  29      </b><b><a href="#install">Installation</a><br>
  30      <a href="#mininstall">Minimum Install</a><br>
  31      <a href="#coding">Initializing Code and Connectioning to Databases</a><br>
  32      </b><font size="2"> &nbsp; <a href="#dsnsupport">Data Source Name (DSN) Support</a></font>  &nbsp;  <a href="#connect_ex">Connection Examples</a> <br>
  33      <b><a href="#speed">High Speed ADOdb - tuning tips</a></b><br>
  34      <b><a href="#hack">Hacking and Modifying ADOdb Safely</a><br>
  35      <a href="#php5">PHP5 Features</a></b><br>
  36      <font size="2"><a href="#php5iterators">foreach iterators</a> <a href="#php5exceptions">exceptions</a></font><br>
  37      <b> <a href="#drivers">Supported Databases</a></b><br>
  38      <b> <a href="#quickstart">Tutorials</a></b><br>
  39      <a href="#ex1">Example 1: Select</a><br>
  40      <a href="#ex2">Example 2: Advanced Select</a><br>
  41      <a href="#ex3">Example 3: Insert</a><br>
  42      <a href="#ex4">Example 4: Debugging</a> &nbsp;<a href="#exrs2html">rs2html 
  43      example</a><br>
  44      <a href="#ex5">Example 5: MySQL and Menus</a><br>
  45      <a href="#ex6">Example 6: Connecting to Multiple Databases at once</a> <br>
  46      <a href="#ex7">Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL</a> <br>
  47      <a href="#ex8">Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous</a><br>
  48      <a href="#ex9">Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format</a> <br>
  49      <a href="#ex10">Example 10: Custom filters</a><br>
  50      <a href="#ex11">Example 11: Smart Transactions</a><br>
  51      <br>
  52      <b> <a href="#errorhandling">Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</a><br>
  53      <a href="#DSN">Data Source Names</a><br>
  54      <a href="#caching">Caching</a><br>
  55      <a href="#pivot">Pivot Tables</a></b> 
  56  </p><p><a href="#ref"><b>REFERENCE</b></a>
  57  </p><p> <font size="2">Variables: <a href="#adodb_countrecs">$ADODB_COUNTRECS</a> 
  58  <a href="#adodb_ansi_padding_off">$ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF</a>
  59    <a href="#adodb_cache_dir">$ADODB_CACHE_DIR</a> <br>
  60    &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  <a href="#force_type">$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</a> 
  61    <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a> 
  62    <a href="#adodb_lang">$ADODB_LANG</a> <br>
  63    Constants: </font><font size="2"><a href="#adodb_assoc_case">ADODB_ASSOC_CASE</a> 
  64    </font><br>
  65    <a href="#ADOConnection"><b> ADOConnection</b></a><br>
  66    <font size="2">Connections: <a href="#connect">Connect</a> <a href="#pconnect">PConnect</a> 
  67    <a href="#nconnect">NConnect</a> <a href="#isconnected">IsConnected</a><br>
  68    Executing SQL: <a href="#execute">Execute</a> <a href="#cacheexecute"><i>CacheExecute</i></a> 
  69    <a href="#SelectLimit">SelectLimit</a> <a href="#cacheSelectLimit"><i>CacheSelectLimit</i></a> 
  70    <a href="#param">Param</a> <a href="#prepare">Prepare</a> <a href="#preparesp">PrepareSP</a> 
  71    <a href="#inparameter">InParameter</a> <a href="#outparameter">OutParameter</a> <a href="#autoexecute">AutoExecute</a>
  72    <br>
  73    &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#getone">GetOne</a> 
  74    <a href="#cachegetone"><i>CacheGetOne</i></a> <a href="#getrow">GetRow</a> <a href="#cachegetrow"><i>CacheGetRow</i></a> 
  75    <a href="#getall">GetAll</a> <a href="#cachegetall"><i>CacheGetAll</i></a> <a href="#getcol">GetCol</a> 
  76    <a href="#cachegetcol"><i>CacheGetCol</i></a> <a href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a> <a href="#cachegetassoc"><i>CacheGetAssoc</i></a> <a href="#replace">Replace</a> 
  77    <br>
  78    &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#executecursor">ExecuteCursor</a> 
  79    (oci8 only)<br>
  80    Generates SQL strings: <a href="#getupdatesql">GetUpdateSQL</a> <a href="#getinsertsql">GetInsertSQL</a> 
  81    <a href="#concat">Concat</a> <a href="#ifnull">IfNull</a> <a href="#length">length</a> <a href="#random">random</a> <a href="#substr">substr</a> 
  82    <a href="#qstr">qstr</a> <a href="#param">Param</a>  <a href="#OffsetDate">OffsetDate</a> <a href="#SQLDate">SQLDate</a> 
  83    <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a>  <a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a>
  84    <br>
  85    Blobs: <a href="#updateblob">UpdateBlob</a> <a href="#updateclob">UpdateClob</a> 
  86    <a href="#updateblobfile">UpdateBlobFile</a> <a href="#blobencode">BlobEncode</a> 
  87    <a href="#blobdecode">BlobDecode</a><br>
  88    Paging/Scrolling: <a href="#pageexecute">PageExecute</a> <a href="#cachepageexecute">CachePageExecute</a><br>
  89    Cleanup: <a href="#cacheflush">CacheFlush</a> <a href="#Close">Close</a><br>
  90    Transactions: <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans</a> <a href="#completetrans">CompleteTrans</a> 
  91    <a href="#failtrans">FailTrans</a> <a href="#hasfailedtrans">HasFailedTrans</a> 
  92    <a href="#begintrans">BeginTrans</a> <a href="#committrans">CommitTrans</a> 
  93    <a href="#rollbacktrans">RollbackTrans</a> <br>
  94    Fetching Data: </font> <font size="2"><a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode</a><br>
  95    Strings: <a href="#concat">concat</a> <a href="#length">length</a>  <a href="#qstr">qstr</a> <a href="#quote">quote</a> <a href="#substr">substr</a><br>
  96    Dates: <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a> <a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a> <a href="#unixdate">UnixDate</a> 
  97    <a href="#unixtimestamp">UnixTimeStamp</a> <a href="#OffsetDate">OffsetDate</a> 
  98    <a href="#SQLDate">SQLDate</a> <br>
  99    Row Management: <a href="#affected_rows">Affected_Rows</a> <a href="#inserted_id">Insert_ID</a>  <a href="#rowlock">RowLock</a>
 100    <a href="#genid">GenID</a> <a href="#createseq">CreateSequence</a> <a href="#dropseq">DropSequence</a> 
 101    <br>
 102    Error Handling: <a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a> <a href="#errorno">ErrorNo</a> 
 103    <a href="#metaerror">MetaError</a> <a href="#metaerrormsg">MetaErrorMsg</a><br>
 104    Data Dictionary (metadata): <a href="#metadatabases">MetaDatabases</a> <a href="#metatables">MetaTables</a> 
 105    <a href="#metacolumns">MetaColumns</a> <a href="#metacolumnames">MetaColumnNames</a> 
 106    <a href="#metaprimarykeys">MetaPrimaryKeys</a> <a href="#metaforeignkeys">MetaForeignKeys</a> 
 107    <a href="#serverinfo">ServerInfo</a> <br>
 108    Statistics and Query-Rewriting: <a href="#logsql">LogSQL</a> <a href="#fnexecute">fnExecute 
 109    and fnCacheExecute</a><br>
 110    </font><font size="2">Deprecated: <a href="#bind">Bind</a> <a href="#blankrecordset">BlankRecordSet</a>
 111    <a href="#parameter">Parameter</a></font>
 112    <a href="#adorecordSet"><b><br>
 113    ADORecordSet</b></a><br>
 114    <font size="2">
 115    Returns one field: <a href="#fields">Fields</a><br>
 116   Returns one row:<a href="#fetchrow">FetchRow</a> <a href="#fetchinto">FetchInto</a> 
 117    <a href="#fetchobject">FetchObject</a> <a href="#fetchnextobject">FetchNextObject</a> 
 118    <a href="#fetchobj">FetchObj</a> <a href="#fetchnextobj">FetchNextObj</a>
 119   <a href="#getrowassoc">GetRowAssoc</a> <br>
 120    Returns all rows:<a href="#getarray">GetArray</a> <a href="#getrows">GetRows</a> 
 121    <a href="#getassoc">GetAssoc</a><br>
 122    Scrolling:<a href="#move">Move</a> <a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a> <a href="#movefirst">MoveFirst</a> 
 123    <a href="#movelast">MoveLast</a> <a href="#abspos">AbsolutePosition</a> <a href="#currentrow">CurrentRow</a> 
 124    <a href="#atfirstpage">AtFirstPage</a> <a href="#atlastpage">AtLastPage</a> 
 125    <a href="#absolutepage">AbsolutePage</a> </font> <font size="2"><br>
 126    Menu generation:<a href="#getmenu">GetMenu</a> <a href="#getmenu2">GetMenu2</a><br>
 127    Dates:<a href="#userdate">UserDate</a> <a href="#usertimestamp">UserTimeStamp</a> 
 128    <a href="#unixdate">UnixDate</a> <a href="#unixtimestamp">UnixTimeStamp<br>
 129    </a>Recordset Info:<a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a> <a href="#po_recordcount">PO_RecordSet</a> 
 130    <a href="#nextrecordset">NextRecordSet</a><br>
 131    Field Info:<a href="#fieldcount">FieldCount</a> <a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a> 
 132    <a href="#metatype">MetaType</a><br>
 133    Cleanup: <a href="#rsclose">Close</a></font>  
 134  </p>
 135  <p><font size="2"><a href="#rs2html"><b>rs2html</b></a>&nbsp; <a href="#exrs2html">example</a></font><br>
 136    <a href="#adodiff">Differences between ADOdb and ADO</a><br>
 137    <a href="#driverguide"><b>Database Driver Guide<br>
 138    </b></a><b><a href="#changes">Change Log</a></b><br>
 139  </p>
 140  <h2>Introduction<a name="intro"></a></h2>
 141  <p>PHP's database access functions are not standardised. This creates a need for 
 142    a database class library to hide the differences between the different database 
 143    API's (encapsulate the differences) so we can easily switch databases. PHP 4.0.5 or later
 144    is now required (because we use array-based str_replace).</p>
 145  <p>We currently support MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase, Sybase SQL Anywhere, Informix, 
 146    PostgreSQL, FrontBase,  SQLite, Interbase (Firebird and Borland variants), Foxpro, Access, ADO, DB2, SAP DB and ODBC. 
 147    We have had successful reports of connecting to Progress and CacheLite via ODBC. We hope more people 
 148    will contribute drivers to support other databases.</p>
 149  <p>PHP4 supports session variables. You can store your session information using 
 150    ADOdb for true portability and scalability. See adodb-session.php for more information.</p>
 151  <p>Also read <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/adodb/tips_portable_sql.htm">tips_portable_sql.htm</a> 
 152   for tips on writing 
 153    portable SQL.</p>
 154  <h2>Unique Features of ADOdb<a name="features"></a></h2>
 155  <ul>
 156    <li><b>Easy for Windows programmers</b> to adapt to because many of the conventions 
 157      are similar to Microsoft's ADO.</li>
 158    <li>Unlike other PHP database classes which focus only on select statements, 
 159      <b>we provide support code to handle inserts and updates which can be adapted 
 160      to multiple databases quickly.</b> Methods are provided for date handling, 
 161      string concatenation and string quoting characters for differing databases.</li>
 162    <li>A<b> metatype system </b>is built in so that we can figure out that types 
 163      such as CHAR, TEXT and STRING are equivalent in different databases.</li>
 164    <li><b>Easy to port</b> because all the database dependant code are stored in 
 165      stub functions. You do not need to port the core logic of the classes.</li>
 166    <li><b>Portable table and index creation</b> with the <a href="docs-datadict.htm">datadict</a> classes.
 167    </li><li><b>Database performance monitoring and SQL tuning</b> with the <a href="docs-perf.htm">performance monitoring</a> classes.
 168    </li><li><b>Database-backed sessions</b> with the <a href="docs-session.htm">session management</a> classes. Supports session expiry notification.
 169  </li></ul>
 170  <h2>How People are using ADOdb<a name="users"></a></h2>
 171  Here are some examples of how people are using ADOdb (for a much longer list, 
 172  visit <a href="http://phplens.com/phpeverywhere/adodb-cool-apps">adodb-cool-apps</a>): 
 173  <ul>
 174  <li><a href="http://phplens.com/">PhpLens</a> is a commercial data grid
 175  component that allows both cool Web designers and serious unshaved
 176  programmers to develop and maintain databases on the Web easily.
 177  Developed by the author of ADOdb.<p>
 178  
 179  </p></li><li><a href="http://www.interakt.ro/phakt/">PHAkt: PHP Extension for DreamWeaver Ultradev</a> allows you to script PHP in the popular Web page editor. Database handling provided by ADOdb.<p>
 180  
 181  </p></li><li><a href="http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/%7Erdanyliw/snort/snortacid.html">Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases</a>
 182  (ACID): PHP-based analysis engine to search and process a database of
 183  security incidents generated by security-related software such as IDSes
 184  and firewalls (e.g. Snort, ipchains). By Roman Danyliw.<p>
 185  
 186  </p></li><li><a href="http://www.postnuke.com/">PostNuke</a> is a very
 187  popular free content management system and weblog system. It offers
 188  full CSS support, HTML 4.01 transitional compliance throughout, an
 189  advanced blocks system, and is fully multi-lingual enabled. <p>
 190  
 191  </p></li><li><a href="http://www.auto-net.no/easypublish.php?page=index&amp;lang_id=2">EasyPublish CMS</a>
 192  is another free content management system for managing information and
 193  integrated modules on your internet, intranet- and extranet-sites. From
 194  Norway.<p>
 195  
 196  </p></li><li><a href="http://nola.noguska.com/">NOLA</a> is a full featured accounting, inventory, and job tracking application. It is licensed under the GPL, and developed by Noguska.
 197  </li></ul><p>
 198  
 199  </p><h2>Feature Requests and Bug Reports<a name="bugs"></a></h2>
 200  <p>Feature requests and bug reports can be emailed to <a href="mailto:jlim#natsoft.com.my">jlim#natsoft.com.my</a> 
 201    or posted to the ADOdb Help forums at <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/topics.php?id=4">http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/topics.php?id=4</a>.</p>
 202  <h2>Installation Guide<a name="install"></a></h2>
 203  <p>Make sure you are running PHP 4.0.5 or later. 
 204    Unpack all the files into a directory accessible by your webserver.</p>
 205  <p>To test, try modifying some of the tutorial examples. Make sure you customize 
 206    the connection settings correctly. You can debug using <i>$db-&gt;debug = true</i> as shown below:</p>
 207  <pre>&lt;?php<br>    include ('adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br>    $db = <a href="#adonewconnection">ADONewConnection</a>($dbdriver); # eg 'mysql' or 'postgres'<br>    $db-&gt;debug = true;<br>    $db-&gt;<a href="#connect">Connect</a>($server, $user, $password, $database);<br>    $rs = $db-&gt;<a href="#execute">Execute</a>('select * from some_small_table');<br>    print "&lt;pre&gt;";<br>    print_r($rs-&gt;<a href="#getrows">GetRows</a>());<br>    print "&lt;/pre&gt;";<br>?&gt;</pre>

 208  
 209   <h3>Minimum Install<a name="mininstall"></a></h3>
 210  <p>For developers who want to release a minimal install of ADOdb, you will need:
 211  </p><ul>
 212  <li>adodb.inc.php
 213  </li><li>adodb-lib.inc.php
 214  </li><li>adodb-time.inc.php
 215  </li><li>drivers/adodb-$database.inc.php
 216  </li><li>license.txt (for legal reasons)
 217  </li><li>adodb-php4.inc.php
 218  </li><li>adodb-iterator.inc.php
 219  </li></ul>
 220  Optional:
 221  <ul>
 222  <li>adodb-error.inc.php and lang/adodb-$lang.inc.php (if you use MetaError())
 223  </li><li>adodb-csvlib.inc.php (if you use cached recordsets - CacheExecute(), etc)
 224  </li><li>adodb-exceptions.inc.php and adodb-errorhandler.inc.php (if you use adodb error handler or php5 exceptions).
 225  </li></ul>
 226  
 227  <h3>Code Initialization Examples<a name="coding"></a></h3>
 228  <p>When running ADOdb, at least two files are loaded. First is adodb/adodb.inc.php, 
 229   which contains all functions used by all database classes. The code specific 
 230   to a particular database is in the adodb/driver/adodb-????.inc.php file.</p>
 231   <a name="adonewconnection"></a>
 232  <p>For example, to connect to a mysql database:</p>
 233  <pre>include('/path/to/set/here/adodb.inc.php');<br>$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');<br></pre>
 234  <p>Whenever you need to connect to a database, you create a Connection object 
 235    using the <b>ADONewConnection</b>($driver) function. 
 236    <b>NewADOConnection</b>($driver) is an alternative name for the same function.</p>
 237  
 238  <p>At this point, you are not connected to the database (no longer true if you pass in a <a href="#dsnsupport">dsn</a>). You will first need to decide
 239  whether to use <i>persistent</i> or <i>non-persistent</i> connections. The advantage of <i>persistent</i>
 240  connections is that they are faster, as the database connection is never closed (even 
 241  when you call Close()). <i>Non-persistent </i>connections take up much fewer resources though,
 242  reducing the risk of your database and your web-server becoming overloaded. 
 243  </p><p>For persistent connections,
 244  use $conn-&gt;<a href="#pconnect">PConnect()</a>,
 245   or $conn-&gt;<a href="#connect">Connect()</a> for non-persistent connections.
 246  Some database drivers also support <a href="#nconnect">NConnect()</a>, which forces 
 247  the creation of a new connection. 
 248  
 249  <a name="connection_gotcha"></a>
 250  </p><p><b>Connection Gotcha</b>:  If you create two connections, but both use the same userid and password,
 251  PHP will share the same connection. This can cause problems if the connections are meant to 
 252  different databases. The solution is to always use different userid's for different databases,
 253   or use NConnect().
 254  
 255   <a name="dsnsupport"></a>
 256   </p><h3>Data Source Name (DSN) Support</h3> 
 257   <p> Since ADOdb 4.51, you can connect to a database by passing a dsn to NewADOConnection() (or ADONewConnection, which is
 258   the same function). The dsn format is:
 259  </p><pre>    $driver://$username:$password@hostname/$database?options[=value]<br></pre><p>
 260  NewADOConnection() calls Connect() or PConnect() internally for you. If the connection fails, false is returned.
 261  </p><pre>    <font color="#008000"># non-persistent connection</font>
 262      $dsn = 'mysql://root:pwd@localhost/mydb'; 
 263      $db = NewADOConnection($dsn);
 264      if (!$db) die("Connection failed");   
 265      
 266      <font color="#008000"># no need to call connect/pconnect!</font>
 267      $arr = $db-&gt;GetArray("select * from table");
 268      
 269      <font color="#008000"># persistent connection</font>
 270      $dsn2 = 'mysql://root:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist'; 
 271  </pre>
 272  <p>
 273  If you have special characters such as /:? in your dsn, then you need to rawurlencode them first:
 274  </p><pre>    $pwd = rawurlencode($pwd);<br>    $dsn = "mysql://root:$pwd@localhost/mydb";<br></pre>
 275  <p>
 276  Legal options are:
 277  </p><p>
 278  <table align="center" border="1"><tbody><tr><td>For all drivers</td><td>
 279      'persist', 'persistent', 'debug', 'fetchmode'
 280      </td></tr><tr><td>Interbase/Firebird
 281      </td><td>
 282                       'dialect','charset','buffers','role'
 283      </td></tr><tr><td>M'soft ADO</td><td>
 284                       'charpage'
 285                      
 286          </td></tr><tr><td>MySQL</td><td>
 287                      'clientflags'
 288  </td></tr><tr><td>MySQLi</td><td>
 289      'port', 'socket', 'clientflags'
 290  </td></tr><tr><td>Oci8</td><td>
 291   'nls_date_format'
 292  </td></tr></tbody></table>
 293  </p><p>
 294  For all drivers, when the options <i>persist</i> or <i>persistent</i> are set,  a persistent connection is forced.
 295  The <i>debug</i> option enables debugging. The <i>fetchmode</i> calls <a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode()</a>.
 296  If no value is defined for an option, then the value is set to 1.
 297  </p><p>
 298  ADOdb DSN's are compatible with version 1.0 of PEAR DB's DSN format.
 299  <a name="connect_ex">
 300  </a></p><h3><a name="connect_ex">Examples of Connecting to Databases</a></h3>
 301  <h4><a name="connect_ex">MySQL and Most Other Database Drivers</a></h4>
 302  <p><a name="connect_ex">MySQL connections are very straightforward, and the parameters are identical 
 303    to mysql_connect:</a></p>
 304  <pre><a name="connect_ex">    $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); <br>    $conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');<br>    <br>    <font color="#008000"># or dsn </font>
 305      $dsn = 'mysql://user:pwd@localhost/mydb'; 
 306      $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);  # no need for Connect()

 307      
 308      <font color="#008000"># or persistent dsn</font>
 309      $dsn = 'mysql://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist'; 
 310      $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);  # no need for PConnect()

 311      
 312      <font color="#008000"># a more complex example:</font>
 313      $pwd = urlencode($pwd);
 314      $flags =  MYSQL_CLIENT_COMPRESS;
 315      $dsn = "mysql://user:$pwd@localhost/mydb?persist&amp;clientflags=$flags";
 316      $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);  # no need for PConnect()

 317   </a></pre>
 318  <p><a name="connect_ex"> For most drivers, you can use the standard function: Connect($server, $user, $password, $database), or
 319  a </a><a href="dsnsupport">DSN</a> since ADOdb 4.51. Exceptions to this are listed below.
 320  </p><h4>PostgreSQL</h4>
 321  <p>PostgreSQL accepts connections using: </p>
 322  <p>a. the standard connection string:</p>
 323  <pre>    $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('postgres7'); # or pass in 'postgres8' <br>    $conn-&gt;PConnect('host=localhost port=5432 dbname=mary');</pre>

 324  <p> b. the classical 4 parameters:</p>
 325   <pre>    $conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');<br> </pre>
 326  <p>c. dsn:
 327  </p><pre>    $dsn = 'postgres7://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist';  # persist is optional

 328      $dsn = 'postgres8://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist';  # or postgres8

 329      $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);  # no need for Connect/PConnect<br></pre>

 330  <a name="ldap"></a>
 331  
 332   <h4>LDAP</h4>
 333    <p>Here is an example of querying a LDAP server. Thanks to Josh Eldridge for the driver and this example:
 334  </p><pre> &lt;?php<br>require('/path/to/adodb.inc.php');<br><br>$host = 'ldap.baylor.edu';<br>$ldapbase = 'ou=People,o=Baylor University,c=US';<br><br>$ldap = NewADOConnection( 'ldap' );<br>$ldap-&gt;Connect( $host, $user_name='', $password='', $ldapbase );<br><br>echo "&lt;pre&gt;";<br><br>print_r( $ldap-&gt;ServerInfo() );<br>$ldap-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);<br>$userName = 'eldridge';<br>$filter="(|(CN=$userName*)(sn=$userName*)(givenname=$userName*)(uid=$userName*))";<br><br>$rs = $ldap-&gt;Execute( $filter );<br>if ($rs)<br>    while ($arr = $rs-&gt;FetchRow()) {<br>         print_r($arr);    <br>    }<br><br>$rs = $ldap-&gt;Execute( $filter );<br>if ($rs) <br>    while (!$rs-&gt;EOF) {<br>         print_r($rs-&gt;fields);    <br>        $rs-&gt;MoveNext();<br>    } <br>    <br>print_r( $ldap-&gt;GetArray( $filter ) );<br><br>print_r( $ldap-&gt;GetRow( $filter ) );<br><br>$ldap-&gt;Close();<br>echo "&lt;/pre&gt;";<br>?&gt;</pre>
 335  <p>Using DSN:
 336  <pre>
 337  $dsn = "ldap://ldap.baylor.edu/ou=People,o=Baylor University,c=US";
 338  $db = NewADOConnection($dsn);
 339  </pre>
 340  <h4>Interbase/Firebird</h4>
 341  You define the database in the $host parameter:
 342  <pre>    $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('ibase'); <br>    $conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost:c:\ibase\employee.gdb','sysdba','masterkey');<br></pre>
 343  <p>Or dsn:
 344  </p><pre>    $dsn = 'firebird://user:pwd@localhost/mydb?persist&amp;dialect=3';  # persist is optional<br>    $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);  # no need for Connect/PConnect<br></pre>

 345  <h4>SQLite</h4>
 346  Sqlite will create the database file if it does not exist.
 347  <pre>    $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('sqlite');
 348      $conn-&gt;PConnect('c:\path\to\sqlite.db'); # sqlite will create if does not exist<br></pre>

 349  <p>Or dsn:
 350  </p><pre>    $path = urlencode('c:\path\to\sqlite.db');
 351      $dsn = "sqlite:/$path/?persist";  # persist is optional

 352      $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);  # no need for Connect/PConnect<br></pre>

 353  <h4>Oracle (oci8)</h4>
 354  <p>With oci8, you can connect in multiple ways. Note that oci8 works fine with 
 355  newer versions of the Oracle, eg. 9i and 10g.</p>
 356  <p>a. PHP and Oracle reside on the same machine, use default SID.</p>
 357  <pre>    $conn-&gt;Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger');</pre>
 358  <p>b. TNS Name defined in tnsnames.ora (or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES), eg. 'myTNS'</p>
 359  <pre>    $conn-&gt;PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', 'myTNS');</pre>
 360  <p>or</p>
 361  <pre>     $conn-&gt;PConnect('myTNS', 'scott', 'tiger');</pre>
 362  <p>c. Host Address and SID</p>
 363  <pre>    $conn-&gt;Connect('192.168.0.1', 'scott', 'tiger', 'SID');</pre>
 364  <p>d. Host Address and Service Name</p>
 365  <pre>    $conn-&gt;Connect('192.168.0.1', 'scott', 'tiger', 'servicename');</pre>
 366  <p>e. Oracle connection string:
 367  </p><pre>    $cstr = "(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=$host)(PORT=$port))<br>            (CONNECT_DATA=(SID=$sid)))";<br>    $conn-&gt;Connect($cstr, 'scott', 'tiger');<br></pre>
 368  <p>f. ADOdb dsn:
 369  </p><pre>    $dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@tnsname/?persist';  # persist is optional<br>    $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);  # no need for Connect/PConnect<br>    <br>    $dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@host/sid';<br>    $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<br>    <br>    $dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@/';   # oracle on local machine<br>    $conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<br></pre>

 370  <p>You can also set the charSet for Oracle 9.2 and later, supported since PHP 4.3.2, ADOdb 4.54:
 371  </p><pre>    $conn-&gt;charSet = 'we8iso8859p1';<br>    $conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br>    <br>    # or<br>    $dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@tnsname/?charset=WE8MSWIN1252';<br>    $db = ADONewConnection($dsn);<br></pre>
 372  <a name="dsnless"></a>
 373  <h4>DSN-less ODBC ( Access, MSSQL and DB2 examples)</h4>
 374  <p>ODBC DSN's can be created in the ODBC control panel, or you can use a DSN-less 
 375    connection.To use DSN-less connections with ODBC you need PHP 4.3 or later. 
 376  </p>
 377  <p>For Microsoft Access:</p>
 378  <pre>    $db =&amp; ADONewConnection('access');<br>    $dsn = <strong>"Driver={Microsoft Access Driver (*.mdb)};Dbq=d:\\northwind.mdb;Uid=Admin;Pwd=;";</strong>
 379      $db-&gt;Connect($dsn);
 380  </pre>
 381  For Microsoft SQL Server: 
 382  <pre>    $db =&amp; ADONewConnection('odbc_mssql');<br>    $dsn = <strong>"Driver={SQL Server};Server=localhost;Database=northwind;"</strong>;<br>    $db-&gt;Connect($dsn,'userid','password');<br></pre>
 383  or if you prefer to use the mssql extension (which is limited to mssql 6.5 functionality):
 384  <pre>    $db =&amp; ADONewConnection('mssql');<br>    $db-&gt;Execute('localhost', 'userid', 'password', 'northwind');<br></pre>
 385  For DB2:
 386  <pre>    $db =&amp; ADONewConnection('db2');<br>    $dsn = "driver={IBM db2 odbc DRIVER};Database=sample;hostname=localhost;port=50000;protocol=TCPIP;".<br>            "uid=root; pwd=secret";<br>    $db-&gt;Connect($dsn);<br></pre>
 387  <b>DSN-less Connections with ADO</b><br>
 388  If you are using versions of PHP earlier than PHP 4.3.0, DSN-less connections 
 389  only work with Microsoft's ADO, which is Microsoft's COM based API. An example 
 390  using the ADOdb library and Microsoft's ADO: 
 391  <pre>&lt;?php<br>    include ('adodb.inc.php'); <br>    $db = &amp;ADONewConnection("ado_mssql");<br>    print "&lt;h1&gt;Connecting DSN-less $db-&gt;databaseType...&lt;/h1&gt;";<br>        <br>    <b>$myDSN="PROVIDER=MSDASQL;DRIVER={SQL Server};"<br>        . "SERVER=flipper;DATABASE=ai;UID=sa;PWD=;"  ;</b>
 392      $db-&gt;Connect($myDSN);
 393      
 394      $rs = $db-&gt;Execute("select * from table");
 395      $arr = $rs-&gt;GetArray();
 396      print_r($arr);
 397  ?&gt;
 398  </pre><a name="speed"></a>
 399  <h2>High Speed ADOdb - tuning tips</h2>
 400  <p>ADOdb is a big class library, yet it <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/adodb/">consistently beats</a> all other PHP class 
 401    libraries in performance. This is because it is designed in a layered fashion, 
 402    like an onion, with the fastest functions in the innermost layer. Stick to the 
 403    following functions for best performance:</p>
 404  <table align="center" border="1" width="40%">
 405    <tbody><tr>
 406      <td><div align="center"><b>Innermost Layer</b></div></td>
 407    </tr>
 408    <tr> 
 409      <td><p align="center">Connect, PConnect, NConnect<br>
 410          Execute, CacheExecute<br>
 411          SelectLimit, CacheSelectLimit<br>
 412          MoveNext, Close <br>
 413          qstr, Affected_Rows, Insert_ID</p></td>
 414    </tr>
 415  </tbody></table>
 416  <p>The fastest way to access the field data is by accessing the array $recordset-&gt;fields 
 417    directly. Also set the global variables <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a> 
 418    = ADODB_FETCH_NUM, and (for oci8, ibase/firebird and odbc) <a href="#adodb_countrecs">$ADODB_COUNTRECS</a> = false 
 419    before you connect to your database.</p>
 420  <p>Consider using bind parameters if your database supports it, as it improves 
 421    query plan reuse. Use ADOdb's performance tuning system to identify bottlenecks 
 422    quickly. At the time of writing (Dec 2003), this means oci8 and odbc drivers.</p>
 423   <p>Lastly make sure you have a PHP accelerator cache installed such as APC, Turck 
 424    MMCache, Zend Accelerator or ionCube.</p>
 425   <p>Some examples:</p>
 426   <table align="center" border="1"><tbody><tr><td><b>Fastest data retrieval using PHP</b></td><td><b>Fastest data retrieval using ADOdb extension</b></td></tr>
 427  <tr><td>
 428  <pre>$rs =&amp; $rs-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>while (!$rs-&gt;EOF) {<br>    var_dump($rs-&gt;fields);<br>    $rs-&gt;MoveNext();<br>}</pre></td><td>
 429  <pre>$rs =&amp; $rs-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>$array = adodb_getall($rs);<br>var_dump($array);<br><br><br></pre></td></tr></tbody></table>
 430   <p><b>Advanced Tips</b>
 431   </p><p>If you have the <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#extension">ADOdb C extension</a> installed, 
 432   you can replace your calls to $rs-&gt;MoveNext() with adodb_movenext($rs). 
 433   This doubles the speed of this operation. For retrieving entire recordsets at once,
 434  use GetArray(), which uses the high speed extension function adodb_getall($rs) internally.
 435   </p><p>Execute() is the default way to run queries. You can use the low-level functions _Execute() and _query()
 436  to reduce query overhead.  Both these functions share the same parameters as Execute().
 437  </p><p>If you do not have any bind parameters or your database supports
 438  binding (without emulation),
 439  then you can call _Execute() directly. Calling this function bypasses
 440  bind emulation. Debugging is still supported in _Execute().
 441  </p><p>If you do not require debugging facilities nor emulated
 442  binding, and do not require a recordset to be returned, then you can
 443  call _query. This is great for inserts, updates and deletes. Calling
 444  this function
 445  bypasses emulated binding, debugging, and recordset handling. Either
 446  the resultid, true or false are returned by _query(). </p><p>For Informix, you can disable scrollable cursors with $db-&gt;cursorType = 0.
 447  </p><p><a name="hack"></a> </p>
 448  <h2>Hacking ADOdb Safely</h2>
 449  <p>You might want to modify ADOdb for your own purposes. Luckily you can
 450  still maintain backward compatibility by sub-classing ADOdb and using the $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION
 451  variable. $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION allows you to override the behaviour of ADONewConnection().
 452  ADOConnection() checks for this variable and will call
 453  the function-name stored in this variable if it is defined.
 454  </p><p>In the following example, new functionality for the connection object 
 455  is placed in the <i>hack_mysql</i> and <i>hack_postgres7</i> classes. The recordset class naming convention
 456  can be controlled using $rsPrefix. Here we set it to 'hack_rs_', which will make ADOdb use
 457  <i>hack_rs_mysql</i> and <i>hack_rs_postgres7</i> as the recordset classes.
 458  
 459  
 460  </p><pre>class hack_mysql extends adodb_mysql {<br>var $rsPrefix = 'hack_rs_';<br>  /* Your mods here */<br>}<br><br>class hack_rs_mysql extends ADORecordSet_mysql {<br>     /* Your mods here */<br>}<br><br>class hack_postgres7 extends adodb_postgres7 {<br>var $rsPrefix = 'hack_rs_';<br>  /* Your mods here */<br>}<br><br>class hack_rs_postgres7 extends ADORecordSet_postgres7 {<br> /* Your mods here */<br>}<br><br>$ADODB_NEWCONNECTION = 'hack_factory';<br><br>function&amp; hack_factory($driver)<br>{<br>    if ($driver !== 'mysql' &amp;&amp; $driver !== 'postgres7') return false;<br>    <br>    $driver = 'hack_'.$driver;<br>    $obj = new $driver();<br>    return $obj;<br>}<br><br>include_once ('adodb.inc.php');<br></pre>
 461  <p></p><p>Don't forget to call the constructor of the parent class in
 462  your constructor. If you want to use the default ADOdb drivers return
 463  false in the above hack_factory() function.
 464  <a name="php5"></a>
 465  </p><h2>PHP5 Features</h2>
 466   ADOdb 4.02 or later will transparently determine which version of PHP you are using.
 467  If PHP5 is detected, the following features become available:
 468  <ul>
 469  <a name="php5iterators"></a>
 470  <li><b>Foreach iterators</b>: This is a very natural way of going through a recordset:
 471  <pre>    $ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_NUM;<br>    $rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>    foreach($rs as $k =&gt; $row) {<br>        echo "r1=".$row[0]." r2=".$row[1]."&lt;br&gt;";<br>    }<br></pre>
 472  <p>
 473  <a name="php5exceptions"></a>
 474  </p></li><li><b>Exceptions</b>: Just include <i>adodb-exceptions.inc.php</i> and you can now 
 475  catch exceptions on errors as they occur.
 476  <pre>    <b>include ("../adodb-exceptions.inc.php");</b> <br>    include ("../adodb.inc.php");     <br>    try { <br>        $db = NewADOConnection("oci8"); <br>        $db-&gt;Connect('','scott','bad-password'); <br>    } catch (exception $e) { <br>        var_dump($e); <br>        adodb_backtrace($e-&gt;gettrace());<br>    } <br></pre>
 477  <p>Note that reaching EOF is <b>not</b> considered an error nor an exception.
 478  If you want to use the default ADOdb drivers return false.
 479  </p></li></ul> 
 480  <h3><a name="drivers"></a>Databases Supported</h3>
 481  The <i>name</i> below is the value you pass to NewADOConnection($name) to create a  connection object for that database.
 482  <p>
 483  </p><p> 
 484  </p><table border="1" width="100%">
 485    <tbody><tr valign="top"> 
 486      <td><b>Name</b></td>
 487      <td><b>Tested</b></td>
 488      <td><b>Database</b></td>
 489      <td><b><font size="2">RecordCount() usable</font></b></td>
 490      <td><b>Prerequisites</b></td>
 491      <td><b>Operating Systems</b></td>
 492    </tr>
 493    <tr valign="top"> 
 494      <td><b><font size="2">access</font></b></td>
 495      <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
 496      <td><font size="2">Microsoft Access/Jet. You need to create an ODBC DSN.</font></td>
 497      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 498      <td><font size="2">ODBC </font></td>
 499      <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
 500    </tr>
 501    <tr valign="top"> 
 502      <td><b><font size="2">ado</font></b></td>
 503      <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
 504      <td><p><font size="2">Generic ADO, not tuned for specific databases. Allows 
 505          DSN-less connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider. This 
 506          is the base class for all ado drivers.</font></p>
 507        <p><font size="2">You can set $db-&gt;codePage before connecting.</font></p></td>
 508      <td><font size="2">? depends on database</font></td>
 509      <td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
 510      <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
 511    </tr>
 512    <tr valign="top"> 
 513      <td><b><font size="2">ado_access</font></b></td>
 514      <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
 515      <td><font size="2">Microsoft Access/Jet using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections. 
 516        For best performance, use an OLEDB provider.</font></td>
 517      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 518      <td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
 519      <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
 520    </tr>
 521    <tr valign="top"> 
 522      <td><b><font size="2">ado_mssql</font></b></td>
 523      <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
 524      <td><font size="2">Microsoft SQL Server using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections. 
 525        For best performance, use an OLEDB provider.</font></td>
 526      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 527      <td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
 528      <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
 529    </tr>
 530    <tr valign="top"> 
 531      <td height="54"><b><font size="2">db2</font></b></td>
 532      <td height="54"><font size="2">A</font></td>
 533      <td height="54"><font size="2">DB2. Should work reliably as based on ODBC 
 534        driver.</font></td>
 535      <td height="54"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 536      <td height="54"><font size="2">DB2 CLI/ODBC interface</font></td>
 537      <td height="54"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://www.faqts.com/knowledge_base/view.phtml/aid/6283/fid/14">Unix 
 538          install hints</a>. I have had reports that the $host and $database params have to be reversed in Connect() when using the CLI interface.</font></p></td>
 539    </tr>
 540    <tr valign="top"> 
 541      <td><b><font size="2">vfp</font></b></td>
 542      <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
 543      <td><font size="2">Microsoft Visual FoxPro. You need to create an ODBC DSN.</font></td>
 544      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 545      <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
 546      <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
 547    </tr>
 548    <tr valign="top"> 
 549      <td><b><font size="2">fbsql</font></b></td>
 550      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 551      <td><font size="2">FrontBase. </font></td>
 552      <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
 553      <td><font size="2">?</font></td>
 554      <td> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></p></td>
 555    </tr>
 556    <tr valign="top"> 
 557      <td><b><font size="2">ibase</font></b></td>
 558      <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
 559      <td><font size="2">Interbase 6 or earlier. Some users report you might need 
 560        to use this<br>
 561        $db-&gt;PConnect('localhost:c:/ibase/employee.gdb', "sysdba", "masterkey") 
 562        to connect. Lacks Affected_Rows currently.<br>
 563        <br>
 564        You can set $db-&gt;role, $db-&gt;dialect, $db-&gt;buffers and $db-&gt;charSet before connecting.</font></td>
 565      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 566      <td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
 567      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
 568    </tr>
 569    <tr valign="top"> 
 570      <td><b><i><font size="2">firebird</font></i></b></td>
 571      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 572      <td><font size="2">Firebird version of interbase.</font></td>
 573      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 574      <td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
 575      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
 576    </tr>
 577    <tr valign="top"> 
 578      <td><b><i><font size="2">borland_ibase</font></i></b></td>
 579      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 580      <td><font size="2">Borland version of Interbase 6.5 or later. Very sad that 
 581        the forks differ.</font></td>
 582      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 583      <td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
 584      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
 585    </tr>
 586  
 587    <tr valign="top"> 
 588      <td><b><font size="2">informix</font></b></td>
 589      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 590      <td><font size="2">Generic informix driver. Use this if you are using Informix 7.3 or later.</font></td>
 591      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 592      <td><font size="2">Informix client</font></td>
 593      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
 594    </tr>
 595    <tr valign="top"> 
 596      <td><b><font size="2">informix72</font></b></td>
 597      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 598      <td><font size="2"> Informix databases before Informix 7.3 that do no support 
 599        SELECT FIRST.</font></td>
 600      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 601      <td><font size="2">Informix client</font></td>
 602      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
 603    </tr>
 604    <tr valign="top"> 
 605      <td><b><font size="2">ldap</font></b></td>
 606      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 607      <td><font size="2">LDAP driver. See this example for usage information.</font></td>
 608      <td>&nbsp;</td>
 609      <td><font size="2">LDAP extension</font></td>
 610      <td><font size="2">?</font></td>
 611    </tr>
 612    <tr valign="top"> 
 613      <td height="73"><b><font size="2">mssql</font></b></td>
 614      <td height="73"><font size="2">A</font></td>
 615      <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Microsoft SQL Server 7 and later. Works 
 616          with Microsoft SQL Server 2000 also. Note that date formating is problematic 
 617          with this driver. For example, the PHP mssql extension does not return 
 618          the seconds for datetime!</font></p></td>
 619      <td height="73"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 620      <td height="73"><font size="2">Mssql client</font></td>
 621      <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <br>
 622          <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3">Unix install 
 623          howto</a> and <a href="http://linuxjournal.com/article.php?sid=6636&amp;mode=thread&amp;order=0">another 
 624          one</a>. </font></p></td>
 625    </tr>
 626    <tr valign="top"> 
 627      <td height="73"><b><font size="2">mssqlpo</font></b></td>
 628      <td height="73"><font size="2">A</font></td>
 629      <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Portable mssql driver. Identical to above 
 630          mssql driver, except that '||', the concatenation operator, is converted 
 631          to '+'. Useful for porting scripts from most other sql variants that use 
 632          ||.</font></p></td>
 633      <td height="73"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 634      <td height="73"><font size="2">Mssql client</font></td>
 635      <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3"><br>
 636          Unix install howto</a>.</font></p></td>
 637    </tr>
 638    <tr valign="top"> 
 639      <td><b><font size="2">mysql</font></b></td>
 640      <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
 641      <td><font size="2">MySQL without transaction support. You can also set $db-&gt;clientFlags 
 642        before connecting.</font></td>
 643      <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
 644      <td><font size="2">MySQL client</font></td>
 645      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
 646    </tr>
 647    <tr valign="top"> 
 648      <td><font size="2"><b>mysqlt</b> or <b>maxsql</b></font></td>
 649      <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
 650      <td> <p><font size="2">MySQL with transaction support. We recommend using 
 651          || as the concat operator for best portability. This can be done by running 
 652          MySQL using: <br>
 653          <i>mysqld --ansi</i> or <i>mysqld --sql-mode=PIPES_AS_CONCAT</i></font></p></td>
 654      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 655      <td><font size="2">MySQL client</font></td>
 656      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
 657    </tr>
 658    <tr valign="top"> 
 659      <td><b><font size="2">oci8</font></b></td>
 660      <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
 661      <td><font size="2">Oracle 8/9. Has more functionality than <i>oracle</i> driver 
 662        (eg. Affected_Rows). You might have to putenv('ORACLE_HOME=...') before 
 663        Connect/PConnect. </font> <p><font size="2"> There are 2 ways of connecting 
 664          - with server IP and service name: <br>
 665          <i>PConnect('serverip:1521','scott','tiger','service'</i>)<br>
 666          or using an entry in TNSNAMES.ORA or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES: <br>
 667          <i>PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname)</i>. </font> 
 668        </p><p><font size="2">Since 2.31, we support Oracle REF cursor variables directly 
 669          (see <a href="#executecursor">ExecuteCursor</a>).</font> </p></td>
 670      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 671      <td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
 672      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
 673    </tr>
 674    <tr valign="top"> 
 675      <td><b><font size="2">oci805</font></b></td>
 676      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 677      <td><font size="2">Supports reduced Oracle functionality for Oracle 8.0.5. 
 678        SelectLimit is not as efficient as in the oci8 or oci8po drivers.</font></td>
 679      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 680      <td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
 681      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
 682    </tr>
 683    <tr valign="top"> 
 684      <td><b><font size="2">oci8po</font></b></td>
 685      <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
 686      <td><font size="2">Oracle 8/9 portable driver. This is nearly identical with 
 687        the oci8 driver except (a) bind variables in Prepare() use the ? convention, 
 688        instead of :bindvar, (b) field names use the more common PHP convention 
 689        of lowercase names. </font> <p><font size="2">Use this driver if porting 
 690          from other databases is important. Otherwise the oci8 driver offers better 
 691          performance. </font> </p></td>
 692      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 693      <td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
 694      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
 695    </tr>
 696    <tr valign="top"> 
 697      <td><b><font size="2">odbc</font></b></td>
 698      <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
 699      <td><font size="2">Generic ODBC, not tuned for specific databases. To connect, 
 700        use <br>
 701        PConnect('DSN','user','pwd'). This is the base class for all odbc derived 
 702        drivers.</font></td>
 703      <td><font size="2">? depends on database</font></td>
 704      <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
 705      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3?page=4">Unix 
 706        hints.</a></font></td>
 707    </tr>
 708    <tr valign="top"> 
 709      <td><b><font size="2">odbc_mssql</font></b></td>
 710      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 711      <td><font size="2">Uses ODBC to connect to MSSQL</font></td>
 712      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 713      <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
 714      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
 715    </tr>
 716    <tr valign="top"> 
 717      <td><b><font size="2">odbc_oracle</font></b></td>
 718      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 719      <td><font size="2">Uses ODBC to connect to Oracle</font></td>
 720      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 721      <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
 722      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
 723    </tr>
 724      
 725    <tr valign="top"> 
 726      <td><b><font size="2">odbtp</font></b></td>
 727      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 728      <td><font size="2">Generic odbtp driver. <a href="http://odbtp.sourceforge.net/">Odbtp</a> is a software for
 729      accessing Windows ODBC data sources from other operating systems.</font></td>
 730      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 731      <td><font size="2">odbtp</font></td>
 732      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
 733    </tr>
 734    <tr valign="top"> 
 735      <td><b><font size="2">odbtp_unicode</font></b></td>
 736      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 737      <td><font size="2">Odtbp with unicode support</font></td>
 738      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 739      <td><font size="2">odbtp</font></td>
 740      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
 741    </tr>
 742    <tr valign="top"> 
 743      <td height="34"><b><font size="2">oracle</font></b></td>
 744      <td height="34"><font size="2">C</font></td>
 745      <td height="34"><font size="2">Implements old Oracle 7 client API. Use oci8 
 746        driver if possible for better performance.</font></td>
 747      <td height="34"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 748      <td height="34"><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
 749      <td height="34"><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
 750    </tr>
 751    <tr valign="top"> 
 752      <td height="34"><b><font size="2">netezza</font></b></td>
 753      <td height="34"><font size="2">C</font></td>
 754      <td height="34"><font size="2">Netezza driver. Netezza is based on postgres code-base.</font></td>
 755      <td height="34"><font size="2">Y</font></td>
 756      <td height="34"><font size="2">?</font></td>
 757      <td height="34"><font size="2">?</font></td>
 758    </tr>
 759       <tr valign="top"> 
 760      <td><b><font size="2">pdo</font></b></td>
 761      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 762      <td><font size="2">Generic PDO driver for PHP5. </font></td>
 763      <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
 764      <td><font size="2">PDO extension and database specific drivers</font></td>
 765      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
 766    </tr>
 767    <tr valign="top"> 
 768      <td><b><font size="2">postgres</font></b></td>
 769      <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
 770      <td><font size="2">Generic PostgreSQL driver. Currently identical to postgres7 
 771        driver. </font></td>
 772      <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
 773      <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
 774      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
 775    </tr>
 776    <tr valign="top"> 
 777      <td><b><font size="2">postgres64</font></b></td>
 778      <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
 779      <td><font size="2">For PostgreSQL 6.4 and earlier which does not support LIMIT 
 780        internally.</font></td>
 781      <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
 782      <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
 783      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
 784    </tr>
 785    <tr valign="top"> 
 786      <td><b><font size="2">postgres7</font></b></td>
 787      <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
 788      <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL which supports LIMIT and other version 7 functionality.</font></td>
 789      <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
 790      <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
 791      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
 792    </tr>
 793      <tr valign="top"> 
 794      <td><b><font size="2">postgres8</font></b></td>
 795      <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
 796      <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL which supports version 8 functionality.</font></td>
 797      <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
 798      <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
 799      <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
 800    </tr>
 801    <tr valign="top"> 
 802      <td><b><font size="2">sapdb</font></b></td>
 803      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 804      <td><font size="2">SAP DB. Should work reliably as based on ODBC driver.</font></td>
 805      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 806      <td><font size="2">SAP ODBC client</font></td>
 807      <td> <p><font size="2">?</font></p></td>
 808    </tr>
 809    <tr valign="top"> 
 810      <td><b><font size="2">sqlanywhere</font></b></td>
 811      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 812      <td><font size="2">Sybase SQL Anywhere. Should work reliably as based on ODBC 
 813        driver.</font></td>
 814      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 815      <td><font size="2">SQL Anywhere ODBC client</font></td>
 816      <td> <p><font size="2">?</font></p></td>
 817    </tr>
 818    <tr valign="top"> 
 819      <td height="54"><b><font size="2">sqlite</font></b></td>
 820      <td height="54"><font size="2">B</font></td>
 821      <td height="54"><font size="2">SQLite.</font></td>
 822      <td height="54"><font size="2">Y</font></td>
 823      <td height="54"><font size="2">-</font></td>
 824      <td height="54"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
 825    </tr>
 826      <tr valign="top"> 
 827      <td height="54"><b><font size="2">sqlitepo</font></b></td>
 828      <td height="54"><font size="2">B</font></td>
 829      <td height="54"><font size="2">Portable SQLite driver.  This is because assoc mode does not work like other drivers in sqlite.
 830     Namely, when selecting (joining) multiple tables, the table
 831           names are included in the assoc keys in the "sqlite" driver.</font><p>
 832  <font size="2">      In "sqlitepo" driver, the table names are stripped from the returned column names. 
 833        When this results in a conflict,  the first field get preference.
 834        </font></p></td>
 835      <td height="54"><font size="2">Y</font></td>
 836      <td height="54"><font size="2">-</font></td>
 837      <td height="54"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
 838    </tr>
 839   
 840        
 841    <tr valign="top"> 
 842      <td><b><font size="2">sybase</font></b></td>
 843      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 844      <td><font size="2">Sybase. </font></td>
 845      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 846      <td><font size="2">Sybase client</font></td>
 847      <td> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
 848    </tr>
 849    
 850      <tr valign="top"> 
 851      <td><b><font size="2">sybase_ase</font></b></td>
 852      <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
 853      <td><font size="2">Sybase ASE. </font></td>
 854      <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
 855      <td><font size="2">Sybase client</font></td>
 856      <td> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
 857    </tr>
 858    </tbody></table>
 859  
 860  <p></p><p>The "Tested" column indicates how extensively the code has been tested 
 861    and used. <br>
 862    A = well tested and used by many people<br>
 863    B = tested and usable, but some features might not be implemented<br>
 864    C = user contributed or experimental driver. Might not fully support all of 
 865    the latest features of ADOdb. </p>
 866  <p>The column "RecordCount() usable" indicates whether RecordCount() 
 867    return the number of rows, or returns -1 when a SELECT statement is executed. 
 868    If this column displays Y/N then the RecordCount() is emulated when the global 
 869    variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS=true (this is the default). Note that for large recordsets, 
 870    it might be better to disable RecordCount() emulation because substantial amounts 
 871    of memory are required to cache the recordset for counting. Also there is a 
 872    speed penalty of 40-50% if emulation is required. This is emulated in most databases 
 873    except for PostgreSQL and MySQL. This variable is checked every time a query 
 874    is executed, so you can selectively choose which recordsets to count.</p>
 875  <p> 
 876  </p><hr>
 877  <h1>Tutorials<a name="quickstart"></a></h1>
 878  <h3>Example 1: Select Statement<a name="ex1"></a></h3>
 879  <p>Task: Connect to the Access Northwind DSN, display the first 2 columns of each 
 880    row.</p>
 881  <p>In this example, we create a ADOConnection object, which represents the connection 
 882    to the database. The connection is initiated with <a href="#pconnect"><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">PConnect</font></a>, 
 883    which is a persistent connection. Whenever we want to query the database, we 
 884    call the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADOConnection.<a href="#execute">Execute</a>()</font> 
 885    function. This returns an ADORecordSet object which is actually a cursor that 
 886    holds the current row in the array <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">fields[]</font>. 
 887    We use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</font> 
 888    to move from row to row.</p>
 889  <p>NB: A useful function that is not used in this example is <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#selectlimit">SelectLimit</a></font>, 
 890    which allows us to limit the number of rows shown. 
 891  </p><pre>&lt;?<br><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');       # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');    # create a connection<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind DSN<br>$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font> = &amp;$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Execute('select * from products');<br>if (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>) <br>    print $<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;ErrorMsg();<br>else<br><b>while</b> (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;EOF) {<br>    <b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[0].' '.$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';<br>    $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;MoveNext();<br>}</font><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">

 892  
 893  $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br></font>

 894  ?&gt;
 895  </pre>
 896  <p>The $<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">recordSet</font> returned stores 
 897    the current row in the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">$recordSet-&gt;fields</font> 
 898    array, indexed by column number (starting from zero). We use the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</font> 
 899    function to move to the next row. The <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">EOF</font> 
 900    property is set to true when end-of-file is reached. If an error occurs in Execute(), 
 901    we return false instead of a recordset.</p>
 902  <p>The <code>$recordSet-&gt;fields[]</code> array is generated by the PHP database 
 903    extension. Some database extensions only index by number and do not index the 
 904    array by field name. To force indexing by name - that is associative arrays 
 905    - use the SetFetchMode function. Each recordset saves and uses whatever fetch 
 906    mode was set when the recordset was created in Execute() or SelectLimit(). 
 907  </p><pre>    $db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);<br>    $rs1 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br>    $db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);<br>    $rs2 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br>    print_r($rs1-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array([0]=&gt;'v0',[1] =&gt;'v1')</i>

 908      print_r($rs2-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=&gt;'v0',['col2'] =&gt;'v1')</i>

 909  </pre>
 910  <p> </p>
 911  <p>To get the number of rows in the select statement, you can use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">$recordSet-&gt;<a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a>()</font>. 
 912    Note that it can return -1 if the number of rows returned cannot be determined.</p>
 913  <h3>Example 2: Advanced Select with Field Objects<a name="ex2"></a></h3>
 914  <p>Select a table, display the first two columns. If the second column is a date 
 915    or timestamp, reformat the date to US format.</p>
 916  <pre>&lt;?<br><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');       # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');    # create a connection<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn<br>$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font> = &amp;$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Execute('select CustomerID,OrderDate from Orders');<br>if (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>) <br>    print $<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;ErrorMsg();<br>else<br><b>while</b> (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;EOF) {<br>    $<font color="#660000">fld</font> = <font color="#336600"><b>$</b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b>-&gt;FetchField</b></font><font color="#006600">(</font>1<font color="#006600">);</font>

 917      $<font color="#660000">type</font> = <font color="#336600"><b>$</b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b>-&gt;MetaType</b></font>($fld-&gt;type);<br><br>    <b>if</b> ( $<font color="#660000">type</font> == 'D' || $<font color="#660000">type</font> == 'T') <br>        <b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[0].' '.<br>            <b><font color="#336600">$</font></b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b><font color="#336600">-&gt;UserDate</font></b>($<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[1],'<b>m/d/Y</b>').'&lt;BR&gt;';<br>    <b>else </b>
 918          <b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[0].' '.$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';<br><br>    $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;MoveNext();<br>}</font><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">
 919  $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br></font>

 920  ?&gt;
 921  </pre>
 922  <p>In this example, we check the field type of the second column using <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a>().</font> 
 923    This returns an object with at least 3 fields.</p>
 924  <ul>
 925    <li><b>name</b>: name of column</li>
 926    <li> <b>type</b>: native field type of column</li>
 927    <li> <b>max_length</b>: maximum length of field. Some databases such as MySQL 
 928      do not return the maximum length of the field correctly. In these cases max_length 
 929      will be set to -1.</li>
 930  </ul>
 931  <p>We then use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</font> 
 932    to translate the native type to a <i>generic</i> type. Currently the following 
 933    <i>generic</i> types are defined:</p>
 934  <ul>
 935    <li><b>C</b>: character fields that should be shown in a &lt;input type="text"&gt; 
 936      tag.</li>
 937    <li><b>X</b>: TeXt, large text fields that should be shown in a &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
 938    <li><b>B</b>: Blobs, or Binary Large Objects. Typically images. 
 939    </li><li><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
 940    <li><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
 941    <li><b>L</b>: Logical field (boolean or bit-field)</li>
 942    <li><b>I</b>:&nbsp; Integer field</li>
 943    <li><b>N</b>: Numeric field. Includes autoincrement, numeric, floating point, 
 944      real and integer. </li>
 945    <li><b>R</b>: Serial field. Includes serial, autoincrement integers. This works 
 946      for selected databases. </li>
 947  </ul>
 948  <p>If the metatype is of type date or timestamp, then we print it using the user 
 949    defined date format with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#userdate">UserDate</a>(),</font> 
 950    which converts the PHP SQL date string format to a user defined one. Another 
 951    use for <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</font> 
 952    is data validation before doing an SQL insert or update.</p>
 953  <h3>Example 3: Inserting<a name="ex3"></a></h3>
 954  <p>Insert a row to the Orders table containing dates and strings that need to 
 955    be quoted before they can be accepted by the database, eg: the single-quote 
 956    in the word <i>John's</i>.</p>
 957  <pre>&lt;?<br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');       # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');    # create a connection<br><br>$<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn<br>$<font color="#660000">shipto</font> = <font color="#006600"><b>$conn-&gt;qstr</b></font>("<i>John's Old Shoppe</i>");<br><br>$<font color="#660000">sql</font> = "insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) ";<br>$<font color="#660000">sql</font> .= "values ('ANATR',2,".<b><font color="#006600">$conn-&gt;DBDate(</font>time()<font color="#006600">)</font></b><font color="#006600">.</font>",$<font color="#660000">shipto</font>)";<br><br><b>if</b> ($<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;Execute($<font color="#660000">sql</font>) <font color="#336600"><b>=== false</b></font>) {<br>    <b>print</b> 'error inserting: '.<font color="#336600"><b>$conn-&gt;ErrorMsg()</b></font>.'&lt;BR&gt;';<br>}<br>?&gt;<br></pre>

 958  <p>In this example, we see the advanced date and quote handling facilities of 
 959    ADOdb. The unix timestamp (which is a long integer) is appropriately formated 
 960    for Access with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a>()</font>, 
 961    and the right escape character is used for quoting the <i>John's Old Shoppe</i>, 
 962    which is<b> </b><i>John'<b>'</b>s Old Shoppe</i> and not PHP's default <i>John<b>'</b>s 
 963    Old Shoppe</i> with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#qstr">qstr</a>()</font>. 
 964  </p>
 965  <p>Observe the error-handling of the Execute statement. False is returned by<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> 
 966    <a href="#execute">Execute</a>() </font>if an error occured. The error message 
 967    for the last error that occurred is displayed in <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</font>. 
 968    Note: <i>php_track_errors</i> might have to be enabled for error messages to 
 969    be saved.</p>
 970  <h3> Example 4: Debugging<a name="ex4"></a></h3>
 971  <pre>&lt;?<br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');       # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');    # create a connection<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn<br><font>$<font color="#663300">shipto</font> = <b>$conn-&gt;qstr</b>("John's Old Shoppe");<br>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = "insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) ";<br>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> .= "values ('ANATR',2,".$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;FormatDate(time()).",$shipto)";<br><b><font color="#336600">$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;debug = true;</font></b>

 972  <b>if</b> ($<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;Execute($sql) <b>=== false</b>) <b>print</b> 'error inserting';</font>
 973  ?&gt;
 974  </pre>
 975  <p>In the above example, we have turned on debugging by setting <b>debug = true</b>. 
 976    This will display the SQL statement before execution, and also show any error 
 977    messages. There is no need to call <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</font> 
 978    in this case. For displaying the recordset, see the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#exrs2html">rs2html</a>() 
 979    </font>example.</p>
 980  <p>Also see the section on <a href="#errorhandling">Custom Error Handlers</a>.</p>
 981  <h3>Example 5: MySQL and Menus<a name="ex5"></a></h3>
 982  <p>Connect to MySQL database <i>agora</i>, and generate a &lt;select&gt; menu 
 983    from an SQL statement where the &lt;option&gt; captions are in the 1st column, 
 984    and the value to send back to the server is in the 2nd column.</p>
 985  <pre>&lt;?<br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a connection<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db<br><font>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';<br>$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;Execute($sql);<br><b>print</b> <b><font color="#336600">$<font color="#663300">rs</font>-&gt;GetMenu('GetCust','Mary Rosli');<br>?&gt;</font></b></font></pre>

 986  <p>Here we define a menu named GetCust, with the menu option 'Mary Rosli' selected. 
 987    See <a href="#getmenu"><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">GetMenu</font></a><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">()</font>. 
 988    We also have functions that return the recordset as an array: <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#getarray">GetArray</a>()</font>, 
 989    and as an associative array with the key being the first column: <a href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a>().</p>
 990  <h3>Example 6: Connecting to 2 Databases At Once<a name="ex6"></a></h3>
 991  <pre>&lt;?<br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');     # load code common to ADOdb<br>$<font color="#663300">conn1</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a mysql connection<br>$<font color="#663300">conn2</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('oracle');  # create a oracle connection<br><br>$conn1-&gt;PConnect($server, $userid, $password, $database);<br>$conn2-&gt;PConnect(false, $ora_userid, $ora_pwd, $oraname);<br><br>$conn1-&gt;Execute('insert ...');<br>$conn2-&gt;Execute('update ...');<br>?&gt;</pre>

 992  <p> 
 993  </p><h3>Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL<a name="ex7"></a></h3>
 994  <p>Since ADOdb 4.56, we support <a href="reference.functions.getupdatesql.html#autoexecute">AutoExecute()</a>, 
 995  which simplifies things by providing an advanced wrapper for GetInsertSQL() and GetUpdateSQL(). For example,
 996  an INSERT can be carried out with:
 997  
 998  <pre>
 999      $record["firstname"] = "Bob"; 
1000      $record["lastname"] = "Smith"; 
1001      $record["created"] = time(); 
1002      $insertSQL = $conn->AutoExecute($rs, $record, 'INSERT'); 
1003  </pre>
1004  
1005  and an UPDATE with:
1006  <pre>
1007      $record["firstname"] = "Caroline"; 
1008      $record["lastname"] = "Smith"; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith 

1009      $insertSQL = $conn->AutoExecute($rs, $record, 'UPDATE', 'WHERE id = 1'); 
1010  </pre>
1011  <p>
1012  The rest of this section is out-of-date:
1013  <p>ADOdb 1.31 and later supports two new recordset functions: GetUpdateSQL( ) and 
1014  GetInsertSQL( ). This allow you to perform a "SELECT * FROM table query WHERE...", 
1015  make a copy of the $rs-&gt;fields, modify the fields, and then generate the SQL to 
1016  update or insert into the table automatically. 
1017  <p> We show how the functions can be used when accessing a table with the following 
1018    fields: (ID, FirstName, LastName, Created). 
1019  </p><p> Before these functions can be called, you need to initialize the recordset 
1020    by performing a select on the table. Idea and code by Jonathan Younger jyounger#unilab.com. 
1021   Since ADOdb 2.42, you can pass a  table name instead of a recordset into 
1022  GetInsertSQL (in $rs), and it will generate an insert statement for that table.
1023  </p><p> 
1024  </p><pre>&lt;?<br>#==============================================<br># SAMPLE GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL() code<br>#==============================================<br>include ('adodb.inc.php');<br>include('tohtml.inc.php');<br><br>#==========================<br># This code tests an insert<br><br>$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = -1"; <br># Select an empty record from the database<br><br>$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection("mysql");  # create a connection<br>$conn-&gt;debug=1;<br>$conn-&gt;PConnect("localhost", "admin", "", "test"); # connect to MySQL, testdb<br>$rs = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the empty recordset<br><br>$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to insert<br><br># Set the values for the fields in the record<br># Note that field names are case-insensitive<br>$record["firstname"] = "Bob";<br>$record["lastNamE"] = "Smith";<br>$record["creaTed"] = time();<br><br># Pass the empty recordset and the array containing the data to insert<br># into the GetInsertSQL function. The function will process the data and return<br># a fully formatted insert sql statement.<br>$insertSQL = $conn-&gt;GetInsertSQL($rs, $record);<br><br>$conn-&gt;Execute($insertSQL); # Insert the record into the database<br><br>#==========================<br># This code tests an update<br><br>$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = 1"; <br># Select a record to update<br><br>$rs = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the existing record to update<br><br>$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to update<br><br># Set the values for the fields in the record<br># Note that field names are case-insensitive<br>$record["firstname"] = "Caroline";<br>$record["LasTnAme"] = "Smith"; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith<br><br># Pass the single record recordset and the array containing the data to update<br># into the GetUpdateSQL function. The function will process the data and return<br># a fully formatted update sql statement with the correct WHERE clause.<br># If the data has not changed, no recordset is returned<br>$updateSQL = $conn-&gt;GetUpdateSQL($rs, $record);<br><br>$conn-&gt;Execute($updateSQL); # Update the record in the database<br>$conn-&gt;Close();<br>?&gt;<br></pre>

1025  <a name="ADODB_FORCE_TYPE"></a>
1026  <b>$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</b><p>
1027  The behaviour of AutoExecute(), GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL()  
1028  when converting empty or null PHP variables to SQL is controlled by the
1029   global $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE variable. Set it to one of the values below. Default
1030    is ADODB_FORCE_VALUE (3):
1031  </p><pre>0 = ignore empty fields. All empty fields in array are ignored.<br>1 = force null. All empty, php null and string 'null' fields are changed to sql NULL values.<br>2 = force empty. All empty, php null and string 'null' fields are changed to sql empty '' or 0 values.<br>3 = force value. Value is left as it is. Php null and string 'null' are set to sql NULL values and <br>    empty fields '' are set to empty '' sql values.<br><br>define('ADODB_FORCE_IGNORE',0);<br>define('ADODB_FORCE_NULL',1);<br>define('ADODB_FORCE_EMPTY',2);<br>define('ADODB_FORCE_VALUE',3);<br></pre>
1032  <p>
1033  Thanks to Niko (nuko#mbnet.fi) for the $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE code.
1034  </p><p>
1035  Note: the constant ADODB_FORCE_NULLS is obsolete since 4.52 and is ignored. Set $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE = ADODB_FORCE_NULL
1036  for equivalent behaviour.
1037  
1038  </p><p>
1039  </p><h3>Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous<a name="ex8"></a></h3>
1040  <p> The following code creates a very simple recordset pager, where you can scroll 
1041    from page to page of a recordset.</p>
1042  <pre>include_once ('../adodb.inc.php');<br>include_once ('../adodb-pager.inc.php');<br>session_start();<br><br>$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');<br><br>$db-&gt;Connect('localhost','root','','xphplens');<br><br>$sql = "select * from adoxyz ";<br><br>$pager = new ADODB_Pager($db,$sql);<br>$pager-&gt;Render($rows_per_page=5);</pre>
1043  <p>This will create a basic record pager that looks like this: <a name="scr"></a> 
1044  </p><p> 
1045  <table bgcolor="beige" border="1">
1046    <tbody><tr> 
1047      <td> <a href="#scr"><code>|&lt;</code></a> &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>&lt;&lt;</code></a> 
1048        &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>&gt;&gt;</code></a> &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>&gt;|</code></a> 
1049        &nbsp; </td>
1050    </tr>
1051    <tr>
1052      <td><table bgcolor="white" border="1" cols="4" width="100%">
1053          <tbody><tr><th>ID</th>
1054          <th>First Name</th>
1055          <th>Last Name</th>
1056          <th>Date Created</th>
1057          </tr><tr> 
1058            <td align="right">36&nbsp;</td>
1059            <td>Alan&nbsp;</td>
1060            <td>Turing&nbsp;</td>
1061            <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1062          </tr>
1063          <tr> 
1064            <td align="right">37&nbsp;</td>
1065            <td>Serena&nbsp;</td>
1066            <td>Williams&nbsp;</td>
1067            <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1068          </tr>
1069          <tr> 
1070            <td align="right">38&nbsp;</td>
1071            <td>Yat Sun&nbsp;</td>
1072            <td>Sun&nbsp;</td>
1073            <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1074          </tr>
1075          <tr> 
1076            <td align="right">39&nbsp;</td>
1077            <td>Wai Hun&nbsp;</td>
1078            <td>See&nbsp;</td>
1079            <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1080          </tr>
1081          <tr> 
1082            <td align="right">40&nbsp;</td>
1083            <td>Steven&nbsp;</td>
1084            <td>Oey&nbsp;</td>
1085            <td>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</td>
1086          </tr>
1087        </tbody></table></td>
1088    </tr>
1089    <tr>
1090      <td><font size="-1">Page 8/10</font></td>
1091    </tr>
1092  </tbody></table>
1093  </p><p>The number of rows to display at one time is controled by the Render($rows) 
1094    method. If you do not pass any value to Render(), ADODB_Pager will default to 
1095    10 records per page. 
1096  </p><p>You can control the column titles by modifying your SQL (supported by most 
1097    databases): 
1098  </p><pre>$sql = 'select id as "ID", firstname as "First Name", <br>          lastname as "Last Name", created as "Date Created" <br>        from adoxyz';</pre>
1099  <p>The above code can be found in the <i>adodb/tests/testpaging.php</i> example 
1100    included with this release, and the class ADODB_Pager in <i>adodb/adodb-pager.inc.php</i>. 
1101    The ADODB_Pager code can be adapted by a programmer so that the text links can 
1102    be replaced by images, and the dull white background be replaced with more interesting 
1103    colors. 
1104  </p><p>You can also allow display of html by setting $pager-&gt;htmlSpecialChars = false. 
1105  </p><p>Some of the code used here was contributed by Iv&aacute;n Oliva and Cornel 
1106    G. </p>
1107  <h3><a name="ex9"></a>Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format</h3>
1108  <p>We provide some helper functions to export in comma-separated-value (CSV) and 
1109    tab-delimited formats:</p>
1110  <pre><b>include_once('/path/to/adodb/toexport.inc.php');</b><br>include_once('/path/to/adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br>
1111  $db = &amp;NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>$db-&gt;Connect($server, $userid, $password, $database);<br><br>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select fname as "First Name", surname as "Surname" from table');<br><br>print "&lt;pre&gt;";<br>print <b>rs2csv</b>($rs); # return a string, CSV format<p>print '&lt;hr&gt;';<br><br>$rs-&gt;MoveFirst(); # note, some databases do not support MoveFirst<br>print <b>rs2tab</b>($rs,<i>false</i>); # return a string, tab-delimited<br>                         # false == suppress field names in first line</p>print '&lt;hr&gt;';<br>$rs-&gt;MoveFirst();<br><b>rs2tabout</b>($rs); # send to stdout directly (there is also an rs2csvout function)<br>print "&lt;/pre&gt;";<br><br>$rs-&gt;MoveFirst();<br>$fp = fopen($path, "w");<br>if ($fp) {<br>  <b>rs2csvfile</b>($rs, $fp); # write to file (there is also an rs2tabfile function)<br>  fclose($fp);<br>}<br></pre>

1112  <p> Carriage-returns or newlines are converted to spaces. Field names are returned 
1113    in the first line of text. Strings containing the delimiter character are quoted 
1114    with double-quotes. Double-quotes are double-quoted again. This conforms to 
1115    Excel import and export guide-lines. 
1116  </p><p>All the above functions take as an optional last parameter, $addtitles which 
1117    defaults to <i>true</i>. When set to <i>false</i> field names in the first line 
1118    are suppressed. <br>
1119  </p><h3>Example 10: Recordset Filters<a name="ex10"></a></h3>
1120  <p>Sometimes we want to pre-process all rows in a recordset before we use it. 
1121    For example, we want to ucwords all text in recordset. 
1122  </p><pre>include_once ('adodb/rsfilter.inc.php');<br>include_once ('adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br><br>// ucwords() every element in the recordset<br>function do_ucwords(&amp;$arr,$rs)<br>{<br>    foreach($arr as $k =&gt; $v) {<br>        $arr[$k] = ucwords($v);<br>    }<br>}<br><br>$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>$db-&gt;PConnect('server','user','pwd','db');<br><br>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select ... from table');<br>$rs = <b>RSFilter</b>($rs,'do_ucwords');<br></pre>
1123  <p>The <i>RSFilter</i> function takes 2 parameters, the recordset, and the name 
1124    of the <i>filter</i> function. It returns the processed recordset scrolled to 
1125    the first record. The <i>filter</i> function takes two parameters, the current 
1126    row as an array, and the recordset object. For future compatibility, you should 
1127    not use the original recordset object. </p>
1128  <h3>Example 11:<a name="ex11"></a> Smart Transactions</h3>
1129  The old way of doing transactions required you to use 
1130  <pre>$conn-&gt;<b>BeginTrans</b>();<br>$ok = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>if ($ok) $ok = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql2);<br>if (!$ok) $conn-&gt;<b>RollbackTrans</b>();<br>else $conn-&gt;<b>CommitTrans</b>();<br></pre>
1131  This is very complicated for large projects because you have to track the error 
1132  status. Smart Transactions is much simpler. You start a smart transaction by calling 
1133  StartTrans(): 
1134  <pre>$conn-&gt;<b>StartTrans</b>();<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($Sql2);<br>$conn-&gt;<b>CompleteTrans</b>();<br></pre>
1135  CompleteTrans() detects when an SQL error occurs, and will Rollback/Commit as 
1136  appropriate. To specificly force a rollback even if no error occured, use FailTrans(). 
1137  Note that the rollback is done in CompleteTrans(), and not in FailTrans(). 
1138  <pre>$conn-&gt;<b>StartTrans</b>();<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>if (!CheckRecords()) $conn-&gt;<strong>FailTrans</strong>();<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($Sql2);<br>$conn-&gt;<b>CompleteTrans</b>();<br></pre>
1139  <p>You can also check if a transaction has failed, using HasFailedTrans(), which 
1140    returns true if FailTrans() was called, or there was an error in the SQL execution. 
1141    Make sure you call HasFailedTrans() before you call CompleteTrans(), as it is 
1142    only works between StartTrans/CompleteTrans.
1143  </p><p>Lastly, StartTrans/CompleteTrans is nestable, and only the outermost block 
1144    is executed. In contrast, BeginTrans/CommitTrans/RollbackTrans is NOT nestable. 
1145  </p><pre>$conn-&gt;<strong>StartTrans</strong>();<br>$conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>  $conn-&gt;<strong>StartTrans</strong>();    <font color="#006600"># ignored</font>
1146    if (!CheckRecords()) $conn-&gt;FailTrans();
1147    $conn-&gt;<strong>CompleteTrans</strong>(); <font color="#006600"># ignored</font>
1148  $conn-&gt;Execute($Sql2);
1149  $conn-&gt;<strong>CompleteTrans</strong>();<br></pre>
1150  <p>Note: Savepoints are currently not supported. 
1151  </p><h2><a name="errorhandling"></a>Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</h2>
1152  <p>ADOdb supports PHP5 exceptions.  Just include <i>adodb-exceptions.inc.php</i> and you can now 
1153  catch exceptions on errors as they occur.
1154  </p><pre>    <b>include ("../adodb-exceptions.inc.php");</b> <br>    include ("../adodb.inc.php");     <br>    try { <br>        $db = NewADOConnection("oci8://scott:bad-password@mytns/"); <br>    } catch (exception $e) { <br>        var_dump($e); <br>        adodb_backtrace($e-&gt;gettrace());<br>    } <br></pre>
1155  <p> ADOdb also provides two custom handlers which you can modify for your needs. The 
1156    first one is in the <b>adodb-errorhandler.inc.php</b> file. This makes use of 
1157    the standard PHP functions <a href="http://php.net/error_reporting">error_reporting</a> 
1158    to control what error messages types to display, and <a href="http://php.net/trigger_error">trigger_error</a> 
1159    which invokes the default PHP error handler. 
1160  </p><p> Including the above file will cause <i>trigger_error($errorstring,E_USER_ERROR)</i> 
1161    to be called when<br>
1162    (a) Connect() or PConnect() fails, or <br>
1163    (b) a function that executes SQL statements such as Execute() or SelectLimit() 
1164    has an error.<br>
1165    (c) GenID() appears to go into an infinite loop. 
1166  </p><p> The $errorstring is generated by ADOdb and will contain useful debugging information 
1167    similar to the error.log data generated below. This file adodb-errorhandler.inc.php 
1168    should be included before you create any ADOConnection objects. 
1169  </p><p> If you define error_reporting(0), no errors will be passed to the error handler. 
1170    If you set error_reporting(E_ALL), all errors will be passed to the error handler. 
1171    You still need to use <b>ini_set("display_errors", "0" or "1")</b> to control 
1172    the display of errors. 
1173  </p><pre>&lt;?php<br><b>error_reporting(E_ALL); # pass any error messages triggered to error handler<br>include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');</b>

1174  include ('adodb.inc.php');
1175  include('tohtml.inc.php');
1176  $c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
1177  $c-&gt;PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
1178  $rs=$c-&gt;Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');

1179  if ($rs) rs2html($rs);
1180  ?&gt;
1181  </pre>
1182  <p> If you want to log the error message, you can do so by defining the following 
1183    optional constants ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE and ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST. ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE 
1184    is the error log message type (see <a href="http://php.net/error_log">error_log</a> 
1185    in the PHP manual). In this case we set it to 3, which means log to the file 
1186    defined by the constant ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST. 
1187  </p><pre>&lt;?php<br><b>error_reporting(E_ALL); # report all errors<br>ini_set("display_errors", "0"); # but do not echo the errors<br>define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE',3);<br>define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST','C:/errors.log');<br>include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');</b>

1188  include ('adodb.inc.php');
1189  include('tohtml.inc.php');
1190  
1191  $c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
1192  $c-&gt;PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
1193  $rs=$c-&gt;Execute('select * from productsz'); ## invalid table productsz

1194  if ($rs) rs2html($rs);
1195  ?&gt;
1196  </pre>
1197  The following message will be logged in the error.log file: 
1198  <pre>(2001-10-28 14:20:38) mysql error: [1146: Table 'northwind.productsz' doesn't exist] in<br> EXECUTE("select * from productsz")<br></pre>
1199  The second error handler is <b>adodb-errorpear.inc.php</b>. This will create a 
1200  PEAR_Error derived object whenever an error occurs. The last PEAR_Error object 
1201  created can be retrieved using ADODB_Pear_Error(). 
1202  <pre>&lt;?php<br><b>include('adodb-errorpear.inc.php');</b>
1203  include ('adodb.inc.php');
1204  include('tohtml.inc.php');
1205  $c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
1206  $c-&gt;PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
1207  $rs=$c-&gt;Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');

1208  if ($rs) rs2html($rs);
1209  else {
1210      <b>$e = ADODB_Pear_Error();<br>    echo '&lt;p&gt;',$e-&gt;message,'&lt;/p&gt;';</b>
1211  }
1212  ?&gt;
1213  </pre>
1214  <p> You can use a PEAR_Error derived class by defining the constant ADODB_PEAR_ERROR_CLASS 
1215    before the adodb-errorpear.inc.php file is included. For easy debugging, you 
1216    can set the default error handler in the beginning of the PHP script to PEAR_ERROR_DIE, 
1217    which will cause an error message to be printed, then halt script execution: 
1218  </p><pre>include('PEAR.php');<br>PEAR::setErrorHandling('PEAR_ERROR_DIE');<br></pre>
1219  <p> Note that we do not explicitly return a PEAR_Error object to you when an error 
1220    occurs. We return false instead. You have to call ADODB_Pear_Error() to get 
1221    the last error or use the PEAR_ERROR_DIE technique. 
1222  </p><h4>Error Messages</h4>
1223  <p>Error messages are outputted using the static method ADOConnnection::outp($msg,$newline=true). 
1224    By default, it sends the messages to the client. You can override this to perform 
1225    error-logging. 
1226  </p><h2><a name="dsn"></a> Data Source Names</h2>
1227  <p>We now support connecting using PEAR style DSN's. A DSN is a connection string 
1228    of the form:</p>
1229  <p>$dsn = <i>"$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename"</i>;</p>
1230  <p>An example:</p>
1231  <pre>   $username = 'root';<br>   $password = '';<br>   $hostname = 'localhost';<br>   $databasename = 'xphplens';<br>   $driver = 'mysql';<br>   $dsn = "$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename"<br>   $db = NewADOConnection(); <br>   # DB::Connect($dsn) also works if you include 'adodb/adodb-pear.inc.php' at the top<br>   $rs = $db-&gt;query('select firstname,lastname from adoxyz');<br>   $cnt = 0;<br>   while ($arr = $rs-&gt;fetchRow()) {<br>        print_r($arr); print "&lt;br&gt;";<br>   }</pre>
1232     <p></p>
1233  <p>   <a href="#dsnsupport">More info and connection examples</a> on the DSN format.
1234  
1235  </p><h2><a name="pear"></a>PEAR Compatibility</h2>
1236    We support DSN's (see above), and the following functions:
1237   <pre><b> DB_Common</b>
1238       query - returns PEAR_Error on error
1239      limitQuery - return PEAR_Error on error
1240      prepare - does not return PEAR_Error on error
1241      execute - does not return PEAR_Error on error
1242      setFetchMode - supports ASSOC and ORDERED
1243      errorNative
1244      quote
1245      nextID
1246      disconnect
1247      
1248      getOne
1249      getAssoc
1250      getRow
1251      getCol
1252      
1253  <b> DB_Result</b>
1254       numRows - returns -1 if not supported
1255      numCols
1256      fetchInto - does not support passing of fetchmode
1257      fetchRows - does not support passing of fetchmode
1258      free
1259  </pre>
1260  <h2><a name="caching"></a>Caching of Recordsets</h2>
1261  <p>ADOdb now supports caching of recordsets using the CacheExecute( ), CachePageExecute( 
1262    ) and CacheSelectLimit( ) functions. There are similar to the non-cache functions, 
1263    except that they take a new first parameter, $secs2cache. 
1264  </p><p> An example: 
1265  </p><pre><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>$ADODB_CACHE_DIR = '/usr/ADODB_cache';<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a connection<br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db<br><font>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';<br>$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;CacheExecute(15,$sql);</font></pre>

1266  <p><font> The first parameter is the number of seconds to cache 
1267    the query. Subsequent calls to that query will used the cached version stored 
1268    in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR. To force a query to execute and flush the cache, call CacheExecute() 
1269    with the first parameter set to zero. Alternatively, use the CacheFlush($sql) 
1270    call. </font></p>
1271  <p><font>For the sake of security, we recommend you set <i>register_globals=off</i> 
1272    in php.ini if you are using $ADODB_CACHE_DIR.</font></p>
1273  <p>In ADOdb 1.80 onwards, the secs2cache parameter is optional in CacheSelectLimit() 
1274    and CacheExecute(). If you leave it out, it will use the $connection-&gt;cacheSecs 
1275    parameter, which defaults to 60 minutes. 
1276  </p><pre>    $conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br>    $conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; # cache 24 hours<br>    $rs = $conn-&gt;CacheExecute('select * from table');<br></pre>

1277  <p>Please note that magic_quotes_runtime should be turned off. <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?LeNs#LensBM_forummsg">More 
1278    info</a>, and do not change $ADODB_FETCH_MODE (or SetFetchMode) 
1279    as the cached recordset will use the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE set when the query was executed. <font> 
1280  <h2><a name="pivot"></a>Pivot Tables</h2>
1281  </font> </p><p><font>Since ADOdb 2.30, we support the generation of 
1282  SQL to create pivot tables, also known as cross-tabulations. For further explanation 
1283  read this DevShed <a href="http://www.devshed.com/Server_Side/MySQL/MySQLWiz/">Cross-Tabulation 
1284  tutorial</a>. We assume that your database supports the SQL case-when expression. </font></p> 
1285  <font> 
1286  <p>In this example, we will use the Northwind database from Microsoft. In the 
1287    database, we have a products table, and we want to analyze this table by <i>suppliers 
1288    versus product categories</i>. We will place the suppliers on each row, and 
1289    pivot on categories. So from the table on the left, we generate the pivot-table 
1290    on the right:</p>
1291  </font> 
1292  <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1293    <tbody><tr>
1294      <td>
1295        <table align="center" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2" width="142">
1296          <tbody><tr> 
1297            <td><i>Supplier</i></td>
1298            <td><i>Category</i></td>
1299          </tr>
1300          <tr> 
1301            <td>supplier1</td>
1302            <td>category1</td>
1303          </tr>
1304          <tr> 
1305            <td>supplier2</td>
1306                        <td>category1</td>
1307          </tr>
1308          <tr> 
1309                        <td>supplier2</td>
1310            <td>category2</td>
1311          </tr>
1312        </tbody></table>
1313      </td>
1314      <td> <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">--&gt;</font></td>
1315      <td>
1316        <table align="center" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
1317          <tbody><tr> 
1318            <td>&nbsp;</td>
1319            <td><i>category1</i></td>
1320            <td><i>category2</i></td>
1321            <td><i>total</i></td>
1322          </tr>
1323          <tr> 
1324            <td><i>supplier1</i></td>
1325            <td align="right">1</td>
1326            <td align="right">0</td>
1327            <td align="right">1</td>
1328          </tr>
1329          <tr> 
1330            <td><i>supplier2</i></td>
1331            <td align="right">1</td>
1332            <td align="right">1</td>
1333            <td align="right">2</td>
1334          </tr>
1335        </tbody></table>
1336      </td>
1337    </tr>
1338  </tbody></table>
1339  <font> 
1340  </font><p><font>The following code will generate the SQL for a cross-tabulation: 
1341  </font></p><pre><font># Query the main "product" table<br># Set the rows to CompanyName<br># and the columns to the values of Categories<br># and define the joins to link to lookup tables <br># "categories" and "suppliers"<br>#<br> include "adodb/pivottable.php";<br> $sql = PivotTableSQL(<br>     $gDB,                                      # adodb connection<br>     'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s',   # tables<br>    'CompanyName',                             # rows (multiple fields allowed)<br>    'CategoryName',                            # column to pivot on <br>    'p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID' # joins/where<br>);<br></font></pre>
1342   
1343  <p><font> This will generate the following SQL:</font></p>
1344  <p><code><font size="2">SELECT CompanyName, <br>
1345    SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Beverages' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Beverages", 
1346    <br>
1347    SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Condiments' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Condiments", 
1348    <br>
1349    SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Confections' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Confections", 
1350    <br>
1351    SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Dairy Products' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Dairy 
1352    Products", <br>
1353    SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Grains/Cereals' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Grains/Cereals", 
1354    <br>
1355    SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Meat/Poultry' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Meat/Poultry", 
1356    <br>
1357    SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Produce' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Produce", 
1358    <br>
1359    SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Seafood' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS "Seafood", 
1360    <br>
1361    SUM(1) as Total <br>
1362    FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID 
1363    and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID <br>
1364    GROUP BY CompanyName</font></code></p>
1365  <p> You can also pivot on <i>numerical columns</i> and <i>generate totals</i> 
1366      by using ranges. <font>This code was revised in ADODB 2.41 
1367      and is not backward compatible.</font> The second example shows this:</p>
1368  <pre> $sql = PivotTableSQL(<br>     $gDB,                                       # adodb connection<br>     'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s',    # tables<br>    'CompanyName',                              #<font> rows (multiple fields allowed)</font>
1369     array(                                       # column ranges
1370      ' 0 '      =&gt; 'UnitsInStock &lt;= 0',
1371      "1 to 5"   =&gt; '0 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 5',
1372      "6 to 10"  =&gt; '5 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 10',
1373      "11 to 15" =&gt; '10 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 15',
1374      "16+"      =&gt; '15 &lt; UnitsInStock'
1375      ),
1376      ' p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID', # joins/where
1377      'UnitsInStock',                             # sum this field
1378      'Sum '                                      # sum label prefix
1379  );
1380  </pre> 
1381  <p>Which generates: </p>
1382  <p> <code> <font size="2">SELECT CompanyName, <br>
1383      SUM(CASE WHEN UnitsInStock &lt;= 0 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 
1384      0 ", <br>
1385      SUM(CASE WHEN 0 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 5 THEN UnitsInStock 
1386      ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 1 to 5",<br>
1387      SUM(CASE WHEN 5 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 10 THEN UnitsInStock 
1388      ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 6 to 10",<br>
1389      SUM(CASE WHEN 10 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 15 THEN UnitsInStock 
1390      ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 11 to 15", <br>
1391      SUM(CASE WHEN 15 &lt; UnitsInStock THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS "Sum 
1392      16+", <br>
1393      SUM(UnitsInStock) AS "Sum UnitsInStock", <br>
1394      SUM(1) as Total,<br>
1395      FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID 
1396      and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID <br>
1397      GROUP BY CompanyName</font></code><font size="2"><br>
1398      </font> </p>
1399  <font><hr>
1400  <h1>Class Reference<a name="ref"></a></h1>
1401  <p>Function parameters with [ ] around them are optional.</p>
1402  </font> 
1403  <h2>Global Variables</h2>
1404  <h3><font><a name="adodb_countrecs"></a></font>$ADODB_COUNTRECS</h3>
1405  <p>If the database driver API does not support counting the number of records 
1406      returned in a SELECT statement, the function RecordCount() is emulated when 
1407      the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS is set to true, which is the default. 
1408      We emulate this by buffering the records, which can take up large amounts 
1409      of memory for big recordsets. Set this variable to false for the best performance. 
1410      This variable is checked every time a query is executed, so you can selectively 
1411      choose which recordsets to count.</p>
1412  <h3><font><a name="adodb_cache_dir"></a>$ADODB_CACHE_DIR</font></h3>
1413  <font> 
1414  <p>If you are using recordset caching, this is the directory to save your recordsets 
1415    in. Define this before you call any caching functions such as CacheExecute( 
1416    ). We recommend setting <i>register_globals=off</i> in php.ini if you use this 
1417    feature for security reasons.</p>
1418  <p>If you are using Unix and apache, you might need to set your cache directory 
1419    permissions to something similar to the following:</p>
1420  </font> 
1421  <p>chown -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache<br>
1422    chgrp -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache </p>
1423  <h3><font><a name="adodb_ansi_padding_off"></a>$ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF</font></h3>
1424  <p><font>Determines whether to right trim CHAR fields (and also VARCHAR for ibase/firebird).
1425  Set to true to trim. Default is false. Currently works for oci8po, ibase and firebird 
1426  drivers. Added in ADOdb 4.01.
1427  </font></p><h3><font><a name="adodb_lang"></a>$ADODB_LANG</font></h3>
1428  <p><font>Determines the language used in MetaErrorMsg(). The default is 'en', for English. 
1429  To find out what languages are supported, see the files 
1430  in adodb/lang/adodb-$lang.inc.php, where $lang is the supported langauge.
1431  </font></p><h3><font><a name="adodb_fetch_mode"></a>$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</font></h3>
1432  <p><font>This is a global variable that determines how arrays are retrieved by recordsets. 
1433    The recordset saves this value on creation (eg. in Execute( ) or SelectLimit( 
1434    )), and any subsequent changes to $ADODB_FETCH_MODE have no affect on existing 
1435    recordsets, only on recordsets created in the future.</font></p>
1436  <p><font>The following constants are defined:</font></p>
1437   
1438  <p><font>define('ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT',0);<br>
1439    define('ADODB_FETCH_NUM',1);<br>
1440    define('ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC',2);<br>
1441    define('ADODB_FETCH_BOTH',3); </font></p>
1442  <font> 
1443  </font><p><font> An example: 
1444  </font></p><pre><font>    $ADODB_<b>FETCH_MODE</b> = ADODB_FETCH_NUM;<br>    $rs1 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br>    $ADODB_<b>FETCH_MODE</b> = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC;<br>    $rs2 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br>    print_r($rs1-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array([0]=&gt;'v0',[1] =&gt;'v1')</i>

1445      print_r($rs2-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=&gt;'v0',['col2'] =&gt;'v1')</i>

1446  </font></pre>
1447  <p><font> As you can see in the above example, both recordsets store and use different 
1448      fetch modes based on the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE setting when the recordset was 
1449      created by Execute().</font></p>
1450  <p><font>If no fetch mode is predefined, the fetch mode defaults to ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. 
1451      The behaviour of this default mode varies from driver to driver, so do not 
1452      rely on ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. For portability, we recommend sticking to ADODB_FETCH_NUM 
1453      or ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Many drivers do not support ADODB_FETCH_BOTH.</font></p>
1454  <p><font><strong>SetFetchMode Function</strong></font></p>
1455  <p><font>If you have multiple connection objects, and want to have different fetch modes for each 
1456  connection, then use <a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode</a>. 
1457      Once this function is called for a connection object, that connection object 
1458      will ignore the global variable $ADODB_FETCH_MODE and will use the internal 
1459      fetchMode property exclusively.</font></p>
1460  <pre><font>    $db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);<br>    $rs1 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br>    $db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);<br>    $rs2 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br>    print_r($rs1-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array([0]=&gt;'v0',[1] =&gt;'v1')</i>

1461      print_r($rs2-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=&gt;'v0',['col2'] =&gt;'v1')</i></font></pre>

1462  <p><font>To retrieve the previous fetch mode, you can use check the $db-&gt;fetchMode 
1463      property, or use the return value of SetFetchMode( ). 
1464  </font></p><p><font><strong><a name="adodb_assoc_case"></a>ADODB_ASSOC_CASE</strong></font></p>
1465  <p><font>You can control the associative fetch case for certain drivers which behave 
1466      differently. For the sybase, oci8po, mssql, odbc and ibase drivers and all 
1467      drivers derived from them, ADODB_ASSOC_CASE will by default generate recordsets 
1468      where the field name keys are lower-cased. Use the constant ADODB_ASSOC_CASE 
1469      to change the case of the keys. There are 3 possible values:</font></p>
1470  <p><font>0 = assoc lowercase field names. $rs-&gt;fields['orderid']<br>
1471      1 = assoc uppercase field names. $rs-&gt;fields['ORDERID']<br>
1472      2 = use native-case field names. $rs-&gt;fields['OrderID'] -- this is the 
1473      default since ADOdb 2.90</font></p>
1474  <p><font>To use it, declare it before you incldue adodb.inc.php.</font></p>
1475  <p><font>define('ADODB_ASSOC_CASE', 2); # use native-case for ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC<br>

1476      include ('adodb.inc.php'); </font></p>
1477  <h3><font><a name="force_type"></a>$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</font></h3>
1478  <p><font>See the <a href="#ADODB_FORCE_TYPE">GetUpdateSQL tutorial</a>.
1479  </font></p><hr>
1480  <h2><font>ADOConnection<a name="adoconnection"></a></font></h2>
1481  <p><font>Object that performs the connection to the database, executes SQL statements 
1482      and has a set of utility functions for standardising the format of SQL statements 
1483      for issues such as concatenation and date formats.</font></p>
1484  <h3><font>ADOConnection Fields</font></h3>
1485  <p><font><b>databaseType</b>: Name of the database system we are connecting to. Eg. 
1486      <b>odbc</b> or <b>mssql</b> or <b>mysql</b>.</font></p>
1487  <p><font><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database. 
1488      Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</font></p>
1489  <p><font><b>host: </b>Name of server or data source name (DSN) to connect to.</font></p>
1490  <p><font><b>database</b>: Name of the database or to connect to. If ado is used, it 
1491      will hold the ado data provider.</font></p>
1492  <p><font><b>user</b>: Login id to connect to database. Password is not saved for security 
1493      reasons.</font></p>
1494  <p><font><b>raiseErrorFn</b>: Allows you to define an error handling function. See adodb-errorhandler.inc.php 
1495      for an example.</font></p>
1496  <p><font><b>debug</b>: Set to <i>true</i> to make debug statements to appear.</font></p>
1497  <p><font><b>concat_operator</b>: Set to '+' or '||' normally. The operator used to concatenate 
1498      strings in SQL. Used by the <b><a href="#concat">Concat</a></b> function.</font></p>
1499  <p><font><b>fmtDate</b>: The format used by the <b><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a></b> 
1500      function to send dates to the database. is '#Y-m-d#' for Microsoft Access, 
1501      and ''Y-m-d'' for MySQL.</font></p>
1502  <p><font><b>fmtTimeStamp: </b>The format used by the <b><a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a></b> 
1503      function to send timestamps to the database. </font></p>
1504  <p><font><b>true</b>: The value used to represent true.Eg. '.T.'. for Foxpro, '1' for 
1505      Microsoft SQL.</font></p>
1506  <p><font><b>false: </b> The value used to represent false. Eg. '.F.'. for Foxpro, '0' 
1507      for Microsoft SQL.</font></p>
1508  <p><font><b>replaceQuote</b>: The string used to escape quotes. Eg. double single-quotes 
1509      for Microsoft SQL, and backslash-quote for MySQL. Used by <a href="#qstr">qstr</a>.</font></p>
1510  <p><font><b>autoCommit</b>: indicates whether automatic commit is enabled. Default is 
1511      true.</font></p>
1512  <p><font><b>charSet</b>: set the default charset to use. Currently only interbase/firebird supports 
1513      this.</font></p>
1514  <p><font><b>dialect</b>: set the default sql dialect to use. Currently only interbase/firebird 
1515      supports this.</font></p>
1516      <p><font><b>role</b>: set the role. Currently only interbase/firebird 
1517      supports this.</font></p>
1518  <p><font><b>metaTablesSQL</b>: SQL statement to return a list of available tables. Eg. 
1519      <i>SHOW TABLES</i> in MySQL.</font></p>
1520  <p><font><b>genID</b>: The latest id generated by GenID() if supported by the database.</font></p>
1521  <p><font><b>cacheSecs</b>: The number of seconds to cache recordsets if CacheExecute() 
1522      or CacheSelectLimit() omit the $secs2cache parameter. Defaults to 60 minutes.</font></p>
1523  <p><font><b>sysDate</b>: String that holds the name of the database function to call 
1524      to get the current date. Useful for inserts and updates.</font></p>
1525  <p><font><b>sysTimeStamp</b>: String that holds the name of the database function to 
1526      call to get the current timestamp/datetime value.</font></p>
1527  <p><font><b>leftOuter</b>: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known. 
1528      Otherwise set to false.</font></p>
1529  <p><font><b>rightOuter</b>: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known. 
1530      Otherwise set to false.</font></p>
1531  <p><font><b>ansiOuter</b>: Boolean that if true indicates that ANSI style outer joins 
1532      are permitted. Eg. <i>select * from table1 left join table2 on p1=p2.</i></font></p>
1533  <p><font><b>connectSID</b>: Boolean that indicates whether to treat the $database parameter 
1534      in connects as the SID for the oci8 driver. Defaults to false. Useful for 
1535      Oracle 8.0.5 and earlier.</font></p>
1536  <p><font><b>autoRollback</b>: Persistent connections are auto-rollbacked in PConnect( 
1537      ) if this is set to true. Default is false.</font></p>
1538  <hr>
1539  <h3><font>ADOConnection Main Functions</font></h3>
1540  <p><font><b>ADOConnection( )</b></font></p>
1541  <p><font>Constructor function. Do not call this directly. Use ADONewConnection( ) instead.</font></p>
1542  <p><font><b>Connect<a name="connect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></font></p>
1543  <p><font>Non-persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid 
1544      $<b>user </b>and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple 
1545      databases, connect to database $<b>database</b>. </font></p>
1546  <p><font>Returns true/false depending on connection success. Since 4.23, null is returned if the extension is not loaded.</font></p>
1547  <p><font>ADO Note: If you are using a Microsoft ADO and not OLEDB, you can set the $database 
1548      parameter to the OLEDB data provider you are using.</font></p>
1549  <p><font>PostgreSQL: An alternative way of connecting to the database is to pass the 
1550      standard PostgreSQL connection string in the first parameter $host, and the 
1551      other parameters will be ignored.</font></p>
1552  <p><font>For Oracle and Oci8, there are two ways to connect. First is to use the TNS 
1553      name defined in your local tnsnames.ora (or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES). Place the 
1554      name in the $database field, and set the $host field to false. Alternatively, 
1555      set $host to the server, and $database to the database SID, this bypassed 
1556      tnsnames.ora. 
1557  </font></p><p><font>Examples: 
1558  </font></p><pre><font> # $oraname in tnsnames.ora/ONAMES/HOSTNAMES<br> $conn-&gt;Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname); <br> $conn-&gt;Connect('server:1521', 'scott', 'tiger', 'ServiceName'); # bypass tnsnames.ora</font></pre>

1559  <p><font>There are many examples of connecting to a database.
1560  See  <a href="#connect_ex">Connection Examples</a> for many examples.
1561  
1562  </font></p><p><font><b>PConnect<a name="pconnect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></font></p>
1563  <p><font>Persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid $<b>user</b> 
1564      and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple databases, 
1565      connect to database $<b>database</b>.</font></p>
1566  <p><font>We now perform a rollback on persistent connection for selected databases since 
1567      2.21, as advised in the PHP manual. See change log or source code for which 
1568      databases are affected. 
1569  </font></p><p><font>Returns true/false depending on connection. Since 4.23, null is returned if the extension is not loaded.
1570  See Connect( ) above for more info.</font></p>
1571  <p><font>Since ADOdb 2.21, we also support autoRollback. If you set:</font></p>
1572   
1573  <pre> $conn = &amp;NewADOConnection('mysql');<br> $conn-&gt;autoRollback = true; # default is false<br> $conn-&gt;PConnect(...); # rollback here</pre>

1574  <p> Then when doing a persistent connection with PConnect( ), ADOdb will 
1575    perform a rollback first. This is because it is documented that PHP is 
1576    not guaranteed to rollback existing failed transactions when 
1577    persistent connections are used. This is implemented in Oracle, 
1578    MySQL, PgSQL, MSSQL, ODBC currently. 
1579  </p><p>Since ADOdb 3.11, you can force non-persistent 
1580  connections even if PConnect is called by defining the constant 
1581  ADODB_NEVER_PERSIST  before you call PConnect.
1582  </p><p>
1583  Since 4.23, null is returned if the extension is not loaded.
1584  </p><p><b>NConnect<a name="nconnect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>
1585  <p>Always force a new connection. In contrast, PHP sometimes reuses connections 
1586      when you use Connect() or PConnect(). Currently works only on mysql (PHP 4.3.0 
1587      or later), postgresql and oci8-derived drivers. For other drivers, NConnect() works like 
1588      Connect().</p>
1589  <p><font><b>IsConnected( )<a name="isconnected"></a></b></font></p>
1590  <p>
1591  <font>Returns true if connected to database. Added in 4.53.
1592  
1593  </font></p><p><font><b>Execute<a name="execute"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1594  <p><font>Execute SQL statement $<b>sql</b> and return derived class of ADORecordSet 
1595      if successful. Note that a record set is always returned on success, even 
1596      if we are executing an insert or update statement. You can also pass in $sql a statement prepared 
1597      in <a href="#prepare">Prepare()</a>.</font></p>
1598  <p><font>Returns derived class of ADORecordSet. Eg. if connecting via mysql, then ADORecordSet_mysql 
1599      would be returned. False is returned if there was an error in executing the 
1600      sql.</font></p>
1601  <p><font>The $inputarr parameter can be used for binding variables to parameters. Below 
1602      is an Oracle example:</font></p>
1603  <pre><font> $conn-&gt;Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", array('val'=&gt; $val));<br> </font></pre>
1604  <p><font>Another example, using ODBC,which uses the ? convention:</font></p>
1605  <pre><font>  $conn-&gt;Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", array($val));<br></font></pre>
1606  <font><a name="binding"></a>
1607  <i>Binding variables</i></font><p>
1608  <font>Variable binding speeds the compilation and caching of SQL statements, leading 
1609  to higher performance. Currently Oracle, Interbase and ODBC supports variable binding. 
1610  Interbase/ODBC style ? binding is emulated in databases that do not support binding. 
1611  Note that you do not have to quote strings if you use binding.
1612  </font></p><p><font> Variable binding in the odbc, interbase and oci8po drivers. 
1613  </font></p><pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table where val=?', array('10'));<br></font></pre>
1614  <font>Variable binding in the oci8 driver: 
1615  </font><pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select name from table where val=:key', <br>  array('key' =&gt; 10));<br></font></pre>
1616  <font><a name="bulkbind"></a>
1617  <i>Bulk binding</i>
1618  </font><p><font>Since ADOdb 3.80, we support bulk binding in Execute(), in which you pass in a 2-dimensional array to
1619  be bound to an INSERT/UPDATE or DELETE statement.
1620  </font></p><pre><font>$arr = array(<br>    array('Ahmad',32),<br>    array('Zulkifli', 24),<br>    array('Rosnah', 21)<br>    );<br>$ok = $db-&gt;Execute('insert into table (name,age) values (?,?)',$arr);<br></font></pre>
1621  <p><font>This provides very high performance as the SQL statement is prepared first. 
1622  The prepared statement is executed repeatedly for each array row until all rows are completed, 
1623  or until the first error. Very useful for importing data.
1624  
1625  </font></p><p><font><b>CacheExecute<a name="cacheexecute"></a>([$secs2cache,]$sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1626  <p><font>Similar to Execute, except that the recordset is cached for $secs2cache seconds 
1627      in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory, and $inputarr only accepts 1-dimensional arrays. 
1628      If CacheExecute() is called again with the same $sql, $inputarr, 
1629      and also the same database, same userid, and the cached recordset 
1630      has not expired, the cached recordset is returned. 
1631  </font></p><pre><font>  include ('adodb.inc.php'); <br>  include('tohtml.inc.php');<br>  $ADODB_<b>CACHE_DIR</b> = '/usr/local/ADOdbcache';<br>  $conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); <br>  $conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');<br>  $rs = $conn-&gt;<b>CacheExecute</b>(15, 'select * from table'); # cache 15 secs<br>  rs2html($rs); /* recordset to html table */  <br></font></pre>
1632  <p><font> Alternatively, since ADOdb 1.80, the $secs2cache parameter is optional:</font></p>
1633  <pre><font>    $conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br>       $conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours<br>    $rs = $conn-&gt;CacheExecute('select * from table');<br></font></pre>

1634  <font>If $secs2cache is omitted, we use the value 
1635  in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, or 1 hour). Use CacheExecute() 
1636  only with SELECT statements. 
1637  </font><p><font>Performance note: I have done some benchmarks and found that they vary so greatly 
1638      that it's better to talk about when caching is of benefit. When your database 
1639      server is <i>much slower </i>than your Web server or the database is <i>very 
1640      overloaded </i>then ADOdb's caching is good because it reduces the load on 
1641      your database server. If your database server is lightly loaded or much faster 
1642      than your Web server, then caching could actually reduce performance. </font></p>
1643  <p><font><b>ExecuteCursor<a name="executecursor"></a>($sql,$cursorName='rs',$parameters=false)</b></font></p>
1644  <p><font>Execute an Oracle stored procedure, and returns an Oracle REF cursor variable as 
1645      a regular ADOdb recordset. Does not work with any other database except oci8. 
1646      Thanks to Robert Tuttle for the design.
1647  </font></p><pre><font>    $db = ADONewConnection("oci8"); <br>    $db-&gt;Connect("foo.com:1521", "uid", "pwd", "FOO"); <br>    $rs = $db-&gt;ExecuteCursor("begin :cursorvar := getdata(:param1); end;", <br>                    'cursorvar',<br>                    array('param1'=&gt;10)); <br>    # $rs is now just like any other ADOdb recordset object<br>    rs2html($rs);</font></pre>
1648  <p><font>ExecuteCursor() is a helper function that does the following internally: 
1649  </font></p><pre><font>    $stmt = $db-&gt;Prepare("begin :cursorvar := getdata(:param1); end;", true); <br>    $db-&gt;Parameter($stmt, $cur, 'cursorvar', false, -1, OCI_B_CURSOR);<br>    $rs = $db-&gt;Execute($stmt,$bindarr);<br></font></pre>
1650  <p><font>ExecuteCursor only accepts 1 out parameter. So if you have 2 out parameters, use:
1651  </font></p><pre><font>    $vv = 'A%';<br>    $stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP("BEGIN list_tabs(:crsr,:tt); END;");<br>    $db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt, $cur, 'crsr', -1, OCI_B_CURSOR);<br>    $db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt, $vv, 'tt', 32); # return varchar(32)<br>    $arr = $db-&gt;GetArray($stmt);<br>    print_r($arr);<br>    echo " val = $vv"; ## outputs 'TEST'<br></font></pre>

1652  <font>for the following PL/SQL:
1653  </font><pre><font>    TYPE TabType IS REF CURSOR RETURN TAB%ROWTYPE;<br><br>    PROCEDURE list_tabs(tabcursor IN OUT TabType,tablenames IN OUT VARCHAR) IS<br>    BEGIN<br>        OPEN tabcursor FOR SELECT * FROM TAB WHERE tname LIKE tablenames;<br>        tablenames := 'TEST';<br>    END list_tabs;<br></font></pre>
1654  <p><font><b>SelectLimit<a name="selectlimit"></a>($sql,$numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1655  <p><font>Returns a recordset if successful. Returns false otherwise. Performs a select 
1656      statement, simulating PostgreSQL's SELECT statement, LIMIT $numrows OFFSET 
1657      $offset clause.</font></p>
1658  <p><font>In PostgreSQL, SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 will return the first 3 records 
1659      only. The equivalent is <code>$connection-&gt;SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',3)</code>. 
1660      This functionality is simulated for databases that do not possess this feature.</font></p>
1661  <p><font>And SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 OFFSET 2 will return records 3, 4 and 5 (eg. 
1662      after record 2, return 3 rows). The equivalent in ADOdb is <code>$connection-&gt;SelectLimit('SELECT 
1663      * FROM TABLE',3,2)</code>.</font></p>
1664  <p><font>Note that this is the <i>opposite</i> of MySQL's LIMIT clause. You can also 
1665      set <code>$connection-&gt;SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',-1,10)</code> to 
1666      get rows 11 to the last row.</font></p>
1667  <p><font>The last parameter $inputarr is for databases that support variable binding 
1668      such as Oracle oci8. This substantially reduces SQL compilation overhead. 
1669      Below is an Oracle example:</font></p>
1670  <pre><font> $conn-&gt;SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", 100,-1,array('val'=&gt; $val));<br> </font></pre>
1671  <p><font>The oci8po driver (oracle portable driver) uses the more standard bind variable 
1672      of ?: 
1673  </font></p><pre><font> $conn-&gt;SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", 100,-1,array('val'=&gt; $val));<br></font></pre>
1674  <p><font> 
1675  </font></p><p><font>Ron Wilson reports that SelectLimit does not work with UNIONs. 
1676  </font></p><p><font><b>CacheSelectLimit<a name="cacheselectlimit"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql, $numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1677  <p><font>Similar to SelectLimit, except that the recordset returned is cached for $secs2cache 
1678      seconds in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory. </font></p>
1679  <p><font>Since 1.80, $secs2cache has been optional, and you can define the caching time 
1680      in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs.</font></p>
1681   
1682  <pre><font>    $conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br>   $conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours<br>    $rs = $conn-&gt;CacheSelectLimit('select * from table',10);</font></pre>

1683  <font> 
1684  </font><p><font><b>CacheFlush<a name="cacheflush"></a>($sql=false,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1685  <p><font>Flush (delete) any cached recordsets for the SQL statement $sql in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR. 
1686  </font></p><p><font>If no parameter is passed in, then all adodb_*.cache files are deleted. 
1687  </font></p><p><font> If you want to flush all cached recordsets manually, execute the following 
1688      PHP code (works only under Unix): <br>
1689      <code> &nbsp; system("rm -f `find ".$ADODB_CACHE_DIR." -name 
1690      adodb_*.cache`");</code></font></p>
1691  <p><font>For general cleanup of all expired files, you should use <a href="http://www.superscripts.com/tutorial/crontab.html">crontab</a> 
1692      on Unix, or at.exe on Windows, and a shell script similar to the following:<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><br>
1693      #------------------------------------------------------ <br>

1694      # This particular example deletes files in the TMPPATH <br>

1695      # directory with the string ".cache" in their name that <br>

1696      # are more than 7 days old. <br>

1697      #------------------------------------------------------ <br>

1698      AGED=7 <br>
1699      find $TMPPATH} -mtime +$AGED | grep "\.cache" | xargs rm -f <br>
1700      </font> </font></p>
1701  <p><font><b>MetaError<a name="metaerror"></a>($errno=false)</b></font></p>
1702  <p><font>Returns a virtualized error number, based on PEAR DB's error number system. You might
1703  need to include adodb-error.inc.php before you call this function. The parameter $errno
1704  is the native error number you want to convert. If you do not pass any parameter, MetaError
1705  will call ErrorNo() for you and convert it. If the error number cannot be virtualized, MetaError 
1706  will return -1 (DB_ERROR).</font></p>
1707  
1708  <p><font><b>MetaErrorMsg<a name="metaerrormsg"></a>($errno)</b></font></p>
1709  <p><font>Pass the error number returned by MetaError() for the equivalent textual error message.</font></p>
1710  <p><font><b>ErrorMsg<a name="errormsg"></a>()</b></font></p>
1711  <p><font>Returns the last status or error message. The error message is reset after every 
1712  call to Execute(). 
1713  </font></p><p>
1714  <font>This can return a string even if 
1715      no error occurs. In general you do not need to call this function unless an 
1716      ADOdb function returns false on an error. </font></p>
1717  <p><font>Note: If <b>debug</b> is enabled, the SQL error message is always displayed 
1718      when the <b>Execute</b> function is called.</font></p>
1719  <p><font><b>ErrorNo<a name="errorno"></a>()</b></font></p>
1720  <p><font>Returns the last error number. The error number is reset after every call to Execute(). 
1721  If 0 is returned, no error occurred.
1722  </font></p><p>
1723  <font>Note that old versions of PHP (pre 4.0.6) do 
1724      not support error number for ODBC. In general you do not need to call this 
1725  	function unless an ADOdb function returns false on an error.</font></p>
1726  
1727  <p><font><b>SetFetchMode<a name="setfetchmode"></a>($mode)</b></font></p>
1728  <p><font>Sets the current fetch mode for the connection and stores 
1729      it in $db-&gt;fetchMode. Legal modes are ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC and ADODB_FETCH_NUM. 
1730      For more info, see <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>.</font></p>
1731  <p><font>Returns the previous fetch mode, which could be false 
1732      if SetFetchMode( ) has not been called before.</font></p>
1733  <font> 
1734  </font><p><font><b>CreateSequence<a name="createseq"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)</b></font></p>
1735  <p><font>Create a sequence. The next time GenID( ) is called, the value returned will 
1736      be $startID. Added in 2.60. 
1737  </font></p><p><font><b>DropSequence<a name="dropseq"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq')</b></font></p>
1738  <p><font>Delete a sequence. Added in 2.60. 
1739  </font></p><p><font><b>GenID<a name="genid"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)</b></font></p>
1740  <p><font>Generate a sequence number . Works for interbase, 
1741      mysql, postgresql, oci8, oci8po, mssql, ODBC based (access,vfp,db2,etc) drivers 
1742      currently. Uses $seqName as the name of the sequence. GenID() will automatically 
1743      create the sequence for you if it does not exist (provided the userid has 
1744      permission to do so). Otherwise you will have to create the sequence yourself. 
1745  </font></p><p><font> If your database driver emulates sequences, the name of the table is the sequence 
1746      name. The table has one column, "id" which should be of type integer, or if 
1747      you need something larger - numeric(16). 
1748  </font></p><p><font> For ODBC and databases that do not support sequences natively (eg mssql, mysql), 
1749      we create a table for each sequence. If the sequence has not been defined 
1750      earlier, it is created with the starting value set in $startID.</font></p>
1751  <p><font>Note that the mssql driver's GenID() before 1.90 used to generate 16 byte GUID's.</font></p>
1752  <p><font><b>UpdateBlob<a name="updateblob"></a>($table,$column,$val,$where)</b></font></p>
1753  <font>Allows you to store a blob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where. 
1754  </font><p><font> Usage: 
1755  </font></p><p><font> 
1756  </font></p><pre><font>    # for oracle<br>    $conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, empty_blob())');<br>    $conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');<br>    <br>    # non oracle databases<br>    $conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, null)');<br>    $conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');<br></font></pre>
1757  <p><font> Returns true if succesful, false otherwise. Supported by MySQL, PostgreSQL, 
1758      Oci8, Oci8po and Interbase drivers. Other drivers might work, depending on 
1759      the state of development.</font></p>
1760  <p><font>Note that when an Interbase blob is retrieved using SELECT, it still needs 
1761      to be decoded using $connection-&gt;DecodeBlob($blob); to derive the original 
1762      value in versions of PHP before 4.1.0. 
1763  </font></p><p><font>For PostgreSQL, you can store your blob using blob oid's or as a bytea field. 
1764      You can use bytea fields but not blob oid's currently with UpdateBlob( ). 
1765      Conversely UpdateBlobFile( ) supports oid's, but not bytea data.<br>
1766      <br>
1767      If you do not pass in an oid, then UpdateBlob() assumes that you are storing 
1768      in bytea fields.
1769  </font></p><p><font><b>UpdateClob<a name="updateclob"></a>($table,$column,$val,$where)</b></font></p>
1770  <font>Allows you to store a clob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where. 
1771  Similar to UpdateBlob (see above), but for Character Large OBjects. 
1772  </font><p><font> Usage:
1773  </font></p><pre><font>    # for oracle<br>    $conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, empty_clob())');<br>    $conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');<br>    <br>    # non oracle databases<br>    $conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, null)');<br>    $conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');<br></font></pre>
1774  <p><font><b>UpdateBlobFile<a name="updateblobfile"></a>($table,$column,$path,$where,$blobtype='BLOB')</b></font></p>
1775  <p><font>Similar to UpdateBlob, except that we pass in a file path to where the blob 
1776      resides.
1777  </font></p><p><font>For PostgreSQL, if you are using blob oid's, use this interface. This interface 
1778      does not support bytea fields.
1779  </font></p><p><font>Returns true if successful, false otherwise. 
1780  </font></p><p><font><b>BlobEncode<a name="blobencode" id="blobencode"></a>($blob)</b> 
1781  </font></p><p><font>Some databases require blob's to be encoded manually before upload. Note if 
1782      you use UpdateBlob( ) or UpdateBlobFile( ) the conversion is done automatically 
1783      for you and you do not have to call this function. For PostgreSQL, currently, 
1784      BlobEncode() can only be used for bytea fields.
1785  </font></p><p><font>Returns the encoded blob value.
1786  </font></p><p><font>Note that there is a connection property called <em>blobEncodeType</em> which 
1787      has 3 legal values: 
1788  </font></p><p><font>false - no need to perform encoding or decoding.<br>
1789      'I' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a numeric value 
1790      (no need to quote).<br>
1791      'C' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a character value 
1792      (requires quoting).
1793  </font></p><p><font>This is purely for documentation purposes, so that programs that accept multiple 
1794      database drivers know what is the right thing to do when processing blobs.
1795  </font></p><p><font><strong>BlobDecode<a name="blobdecode"></a>($blob, $maxblobsize = false)</strong> 
1796  </font></p><p><font>Some databases require blob's to be decoded manually after doing a select statement. 
1797      If the database does not require decoding, then this function will return 
1798      the blob unchanged. Currently BlobDecode is only required for one database, 
1799      PostgreSQL, and only if you are using blob oid's (if you are using bytea fields, 
1800      we auto-decode for you).</font> The default maxblobsize is set in $connection-&gt;maxblobsize, which 
1801      is set to 256K in adodb 4.54. </p><p>
1802      In ADOdb 4.54 and later, the blob is the return value. In earlier versions, the blob data is sent to stdout.</p><font>
1803  </font><p></p><pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute("select bloboid from postgres_table where id=$key");<br>$blob = $db-&gt;BlobDecode( reset($rs-&gt;fields) );</font></pre>
1804  <p><font><b>Replace<a name="replace"></a>($table, $arrFields, $keyCols,$autoQuote=false)</b></font></p>
1805  <p><font>Try to update a record, and if the record is not found, an insert statement 
1806      is generated and executed. Returns 0 on failure, 1 if update statement worked, 
1807      2 if no record was found and the insert was executed successfully. This differs 
1808      from MySQL's replace which deletes the record and inserts a new record. This 
1809      also means you cannot update the primary key. The only exception to this is 
1810      Interbase and its derivitives, which uses delete and insert because of some 
1811      Interbase API limitations. 
1812  </font></p><p><font>The parameters are $table which is the table name, the $arrFields which is an 
1813      associative array where the keys are the field names, and $keyCols is the name 
1814      of the primary key, or an array of field names if it is a compound key. If 
1815      $autoQuote is set to true, then Replace() will quote all values that are non-numeric; 
1816      auto-quoting will not quote nulls. Note that auto-quoting will not work if 
1817      you use SQL functions or operators. 
1818  </font></p><p><font>Examples: 
1819  </font></p><pre><font># single field primary key<br>$ret = $db-&gt;Replace('atable', <br>    array('id'=&gt;1000,'firstname'=&gt;'Harun','lastname'=&gt;'Al-Rashid'),<br>    'id',$autoquote = true);    <br># generates UPDATE atable SET firstname='Harun',lastname='Al-Rashid' WHERE id=1000<br># or INSERT INTO atable (id,firstname,lastname) VALUES (1000,'Harun','Al-Rashid')<br><br># compound key<br>$ret = $db-&gt;Replace('atable2', <br>    array('firstname'=&gt;'Harun','lastname'=&gt;'Al-Rashid', 'age' =&gt; 33, 'birthday' =&gt; 'null'),<br>    array('lastname','firstname'),<br>    $autoquote = true);<br><br># no auto-quoting<br>$ret = $db-&gt;Replace('atable2', <br>    array('firstname'=&gt;"'Harun'",'lastname'=&gt;"'Al-Rashid'", 'age' =&gt; 'null'),<br>    array('lastname','firstname'));    <br></font></pre>
1820  <p><font><b>AutoExecute<a name="autoexecute"></a>($table, $arrFields, $mode, $where=false, $forceUpdate=true,$magicq=false)</b></font></p>
1821  <p>Since ADOdb 4.56, you can automatically generate and execute INSERTs and UPDATEs on a given table with this
1822  function, which is a wrapper for GetInsertSQL() and GetUpdateSQL().
1823  <p>AutoExecute() inserts or updates $table given an array of $arrFields, where the keys are the field names and the array values are the 
1824  field values to store. Note that there is some overhead because the table is first queried to extract key information 
1825  before the SQL is generated. We generate an INSERT or UPDATE based on $mode (see below).
1826  <p>
1827  Legal values for $mode are 
1828  <ul>
1829  <li>'INSERT' or 1 or DB_AUTOQUERY_INSERT
1830  <li>'UPDATE' or 2 or DB_AUTOQUERY_UPDATE
1831  </ul>
1832  <p>You have to define the constants DB_AUTOQUERY_UPDATE and DB_AUTOQUERY_INSERT yourself or include adodb-pear.inc.php.
1833  <p>The $where clause is required if $mode == 'UPDATE'. If $forceUpdate=false then we will query the 
1834  database first and check if the field value returned by the query matches the current field value; only if they differ do we update that field.
1835  <p>Returns true on success, false on error.
1836  <p>An example of its use is:
1837  <pre>
1838  $record["firstName"] = "Carol";
1839  $record["lasTname"] = "Smith"; 
1840  $conn->AutoExecute($table,$record,'INSERT');
1841  # executes <i>"INSERT INTO $table (firstName,lasTname) values ('Carol',Smith')"</i>;

1842  
1843  $record["firstName"] = "Carol";
1844  $record["lasTname"] = "Jones"; 
1845  $conn->AutoExecute($table,$record,'UPDATE', "lastname like 'Sm%'");
1846  # executes <i>"UPDATE $table SET firstName='Carol',lasTname='Jones' WHERE lastname like 'Sm%'"</i>;

1847  </pre>
1848  <p>Note: One of the strengths of ADOdb's AutoExecute() is that only valid field names for $table are updated. If $arrFields
1849  contains keys that are invalid field names for $table, they are ignored. There is some overhead in doing this as we have to 
1850  query the database to get the field names, but given that you are not directly coding the SQL yourself, you probably aren't interested in
1851  speed at all, but convenience.
1852  <p><font><b>GetUpdateSQL<a name="getupdatesql"></a>(&amp;$rs, $arrFields, $forceUpdate=false,$magicq=false, $force=null)</b></font></p>
1853  <p><font>Generate SQL to update a table given a recordset $rs, and the modified fields 
1854      of the array $arrFields (which must be an associative array holding the column 
1855      names and the new values) are compared with the current recordset. If $forceUpdate 
1856      is true, then we also generate the SQL even if $arrFields is identical to 
1857      $rs-&gt;fields. Requires the recordset to be associative. $magicq is used 
1858      to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled (see qstr()). The field names in the array 
1859      are case-insensitive.</font></p>
1860  <font>    </font><p><font>Since 4.52, we allow you to pass the $force type parameter, and this overrides the <a href="#ADODB_FORCE_TYPE">$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</a>
1861      global variable.
1862  </font></p><p><font><b>GetInsertSQL<a name="getinsertsql"></a>(&amp;$rs, $arrFields,$magicq=false,$force_type=false)</b></font></p>
1863  <p><font>Generate SQL to insert into a table given a recordset $rs. Requires the query 
1864      to be associative. $magicq is used to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled 
1865      (for qstr()). The field names in the array are case-insensitive.</font></p>
1866  <p>
1867  <font>  Since 2.42, you can pass a  table name instead of a recordset into 
1868  GetInsertSQL (in $rs), and it will generate an insert statement for that table.
1869  </font></p><p><font>Since 4.52, we allow you to pass the $force_type parameter, and this overrides the <a href="#ADODB_FORCE_TYPE">$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</a>
1870      global variable.
1871  </font></p><p><font><b>PageExecute<a name="pageexecute"></a>($sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)</b> 
1872  </font></p><p><font>Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See <a href="#ex8">Example 
1873    8</a>.</font></p>
1874   
1875  <p><font><b>CachePageExecute<a name="cachepageexecute"></a>($secs2cache, 
1876    $sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)</b> </font></p>
1877  <p><font>Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See 
1878    <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>. Caching version of PageExecute.</font></p>
1879  <font> 
1880  </font><p></p>
1881  <p><font><b>Close<a name="close"></a>( )</b></font></p>
1882  <p><font>Close the database connection. PHP4 proudly states that we no longer have to 
1883    clean up at the end of the connection because the reference counting mechanism 
1884    of PHP4 will automatically clean up for us.</font></p>
1885  <font>  </font><p><font><b>StartTrans<a name="starttrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
1886  <font>  </font><p><font>Start a monitored transaction. As SQL statements are executed, ADOdb will monitor
1887    for SQL errors, and if any are detected, when CompleteTrans() is called, we auto-rollback.
1888    </font></p><p>
1889  <font>  </font></p><p><font> To understand why StartTrans() is superior to BeginTrans(), 
1890    let us examine a few ways of using BeginTrans().
1891    The following is the wrong way to use transactions: 
1892  </font></p><pre><font>$DB-&gt;BeginTrans();<br>$DB-&gt;Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;CommitTrans();<br></font></pre>
1893  <p><font>because you perform no error checking. It is possible to update table1 and 
1894    for the update on table2 to fail. Here is a better way: 
1895  </font></p><pre><font>$DB-&gt;BeginTrans();<br>$ok = $DB-&gt;Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");<br>if ($ok) $ok = $DB-&gt;Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");<br>if ($ok) $DB-&gt;CommitTrans();<br>else $DB-&gt;RollbackTrans();<br></font></pre>
1896  <p><font>Another way is (since ADOdb 2.0): 
1897  </font></p><pre><font>$DB-&gt;BeginTrans();<br>$ok = $DB-&gt;Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");<br>if ($ok) $ok = $DB-&gt;Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;CommitTrans($ok);<br></font></pre>
1898  <p><font> Now it is a headache monitoring $ok all over the place. StartTrans() is an
1899  improvement because it monitors all SQL errors for you. This is particularly
1900  useful if you are calling black-box functions in which SQL queries might be executed.
1901   Also all BeginTrans, CommitTrans and RollbackTrans calls inside a StartTrans block 
1902    will be disabled, so even if the black box function does a commit, it will be ignored.
1903  </font></p><pre><font>$DB-&gt;StartTrans();<br>CallBlackBox();<br>$DB-&gt;Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");<br>$DB-&gt;CompleteTrans($ok);<br></font></pre>
1904  <p><font>Note that a StartTrans blocks are nestable, the inner blocks are ignored.
1905   </font></p><p><font><b>CompleteTrans<a name="completetrans"></a>($autoComplete=true)</b></font></p>
1906  <font>  </font><p><font>Complete a transaction called with StartTrans(). This function monitors
1907    for SQL errors, and will commit if no errors have occured, otherwise it will rollback. 
1908    Returns true on commit, false on rollback. If the parameter $autoComplete is true
1909    monitor sql errors and commit and rollback as appropriate. Set $autoComplete to false 
1910    to force rollback even if no SQL error detected.
1911    </font></p><p><font><b>FailTrans<a name="failtrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
1912  <font>  </font><p><font>Fail a transaction started with StartTrans(). The rollback will only occur when
1913    CompleteTrans() is called.
1914      </font></p><p><font><b>HasFailedTrans<a name="hasfailedtrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
1915  <font>    </font><p><font>Check whether smart transaction has failed, 
1916      eg. returns true if there was an error in SQL execution or FailTrans() was called.
1917      If not within smart transaction, returns false.
1918  </font></p><p><font><b>BeginTrans<a name="begintrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
1919  <p><font>Begin a transaction. Turns off autoCommit. Returns true if successful. Some 
1920    databases will always return false if transaction support is not available. 
1921     Any open transactions will be rolled back when the connection is closed. Among the
1922     databases that support transactions are Oracle, PostgreSQL, Interbase, MSSQL, certain
1923      versions of MySQL, DB2, Informix, Sybase, etc.</font></p>
1924  <font> </font><p><font>Note that <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans()</a> and CompleteTrans() is a superior method of 
1925   handling transactions, available since ADOdb 3.40. For a explanation, see the <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans()</a> documentation.
1926  
1927  </font></p><p><font>You can also use the ADOdb <a href="#errorhandling">error handler</a> to die 
1928    and rollback your transactions for you transparently. Some buggy database extensions 
1929    are known to commit all outstanding tranasactions, so you might want to explicitly 
1930    do a $DB-&gt;RollbackTrans() in your error handler for safety. 
1931   </font></p><h4><font>Detecting Transactions</font></h4>
1932  <font> </font><p><font>Since ADOdb 2.50, you are able to detect when you are inside a transaction. Check
1933   that $connection-&gt;transCnt &gt; 0. This variable is incremented whenever BeginTrans() is called,
1934   and decremented whenever RollbackTrans() or CommitTrans() is called.
1935  </font></p><p><font><b>CommitTrans<a name="committrans"></a>($ok=true)</b></font></p>
1936  <p><font>End a transaction successfully. Returns true if successful. If the database 
1937    does not support transactions, will return true also as data is always committed. 
1938  </font></p>
1939  <p><font>If you pass the parameter $ok=false, the data is rolled back. See example in 
1940    BeginTrans().</font></p>
1941  <p><font><b>RollbackTrans<a name="rollbacktrans"></a>( )</b></font></p>
1942  <p><font>End a transaction, rollback all changes. Returns true if successful. If the 
1943    database does not support transactions, will return false as data is never rollbacked. 
1944  </font></p>
1945  <font> 
1946  </font><p><font><b>GetAssoc<a name="getassoc1"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false,$force_array=false,$first2cols=false)</b></font></p>
1947  <p><font>Returns an associative array for the given query $sql with optional bind parameters 
1948    in $inputarr. If the number of columns returned is greater to two, a 2-dimensional 
1949    array is returned, with the first column of the recordset becomes the keys 
1950    to the rest of the rows. If the columns is equal to two, a 1-dimensional array 
1951    is created, where the the keys directly map to the values (unless $force_array 
1952    is set to true, when an array is created for each value).
1953  </font></p><p><font> Examples:<a name="getassocex"></a></font></p>
1954  
1955  <p><font>We have the following data in a recordset:</font></p>
1956  <p><font>row1: Apple, Fruit, Edible<br>
1957    row2: Cactus, Plant, Inedible<br>
1958    row3: Rose, Flower, Edible</font></p>
1959  <p><font>GetAssoc will generate the following 2-dimensional associative 
1960    array:</font></p>
1961  <p><font>Apple =&gt; array[Fruit, Edible]<br>
1962    Cactus =&gt; array[Plant, Inedible]<br>
1963    Rose =&gt; array[Flower,Edible]</font></p>
1964  <p><font>If the dataset is:</font></p>
1965  <p><font>row1: Apple, Fruit<br>
1966  row2: Cactus, Plant<br>
1967  row3: Rose, Flower </font></p>
1968  <p><font>GetAssoc will generate the following 1-dimensional associative
1969    array (with $force_array==false):</font></p>
1970  <p><font>Apple =&gt; Fruit</font><br>
1971    Cactus=&gt;Plant<br>
1972    Rose=&gt;Flower </p>
1973  <p><font>The function returns:</font></p>
1974  <p><font>The associative array, or false if an error occurs.</font></p>
1975  <font>
1976  <p><b>CacheGetAssoc<a name="cachegetassoc"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false,$force_array=false,$first2cols=false)</b></p>
1977  </font>
1978  <p><font>Caching version of <a href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a> function above.
1979  </font></p><p><font><b>GetOne<a name="getone"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1980  <p><font>Executes the SQL and returns the first field of the first row. The recordset 
1981    and remaining rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occur, false 
1982    is returned.</font></p>
1983  <p><font><b>GetRow<a name="getrow"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></font></p>
1984  <p><font>Executes the SQL and returns the first row as an array. The recordset and remaining 
1985    rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, false is returned.</font></p>
1986  <p><font><b>GetAll<a name="getall"></a>($sql)</b></font></p>
1987  
1988  <p><font>Executes the SQL and returns the all the rows as a 2-dimensional 
1989    array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, 
1990    false is returned.</font></p>
1991   <p><b>GetCol<a name="getcol"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)</b></p>
1992  
1993  <p><font>Executes the SQL and returns all elements of the first column as a 
1994  1-dimensional array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, 
1995    false is returned.</font></p>
1996  <p><font><b>CacheGetOne<a name="cachegetone"></a>([$secs2cache,] 
1997    $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetRow<a name="cachegetrow"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetAll<a name="cachegetall"></a>([$secs2cache,] 
1998    $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetCol<a name="cachegetcol"></a>([$secs2cache,] 
1999    $sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)</b></font></p>
2000  <font> 
2001  </font><p><font>Similar to above Get* functions, except that the recordset is serialized and 
2002    cached in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory for $secs2cache seconds. Good for speeding 
2003    up queries on rarely changing data. Note that the $secs2cache parameter is optional. 
2004    If omitted, we use the value in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, 
2005    or 1 hour).</font></p>
2006  <p><font><b>Prepare<a name="prepare"></a>($sql )</b></font></p>
2007   
2008  <p><font>Prepares (compiles) an SQL query for repeated execution. Bind parameters
2009  are denoted by ?, except for the oci8 driver, which uses the traditional Oracle :varname
2010  convention. 
2011    </font></p>
2012  <p><font>Returns an array containing the original sql statement 
2013    in the first array element; the remaining elements of the array are driver dependent. 
2014    If there is an error, or we are emulating Prepare( ), we return the original 
2015    $sql string. This is because all error-handling has been centralized in Execute( 
2016    ).</font></p>
2017  <p><font>Prepare( ) cannot be used with functions that use SQL 
2018    query rewriting techniques, e.g. PageExecute( ) and SelectLimit( ).</font></p>
2019  <p>Example:</p>
2020  <pre><font>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare('insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)');<br>for ($i=0; $i &lt; $max; $i++)<br></font>    $DB-&gt;<font>Execute($stmt,array((string) rand(), $i));<br></font></pre>
2021  <font> 
2022  </font><p><font>Also see InParameter(), OutParameter() and PrepareSP() below. Only supported internally by interbase, 
2023    oci8 and selected ODBC-based drivers, otherwise it is emulated. There is no 
2024    performance advantage to using Prepare() with emulation. 
2025  </font></p><p><font> Important: Due to limitations or bugs in PHP, if you are getting errors when 
2026    you using prepared queries, try setting $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false before preparing. 
2027    This behaviour has been observed with ODBC. 
2028  </font></p><p><font><b>IfNull<a name="ifnull"></a>($field, $nullReplacementValue)</b></font></p>
2029  <p><font>Portable IFNULL function (NVL in Oracle). Returns a string that represents 
2030    the function that checks whether a $field is null for the given database, and 
2031    if null, change the value returned to $nullReplacementValue. Eg.</font></p>
2032  <pre><font>$sql = <font color="#993300">'SELECT '</font>.$db-&gt;IfNull('name', <font color="#993300">"'- unknown -'"</font>).<font color="#993300"> ' FROM table'</font>;</font></pre>
2033  
2034  <p><font><b>length<a name="length"></a></b></font></p>
2035  <p><font>This is not a function, but a property. Some databases have "length" and others "len"
2036  as the function to measure the length of a string. To use this property:
2037  </font></p><pre><font>  $sql = <font color="#993300">"SELECT "</font>.$db-&gt;length.<font color="#993300">"(field) from table"</font>;<br>  $rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br></font></pre>
2038  
2039  <p><font><b>random<a name="random"></a></b></font></p>
2040  <p><font>This is not a function, but a property. This is a string that holds the sql to
2041  generate a random number between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive.
2042  
2043  </font></p><p><font><b>substr<a name="substr"></a></b></font></p>
2044  <p><font>This is not a function, but a property. Some databases have "substr" and others "substring"
2045  as the function to retrieve a sub-string. To use this property:
2046  </font></p><pre><font>  $sql = <font color="#993300">"SELECT "</font>.$db-&gt;substr.<font color="#993300">"(field, $offset, $length) from table"</font>;<br>  $rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br></font></pre>
2047  <p><font>For all databases, the 1st parameter of <i>substr</i> is the field, the 2nd is the
2048  offset (1-based) to the beginning of the sub-string, and the 3rd is the length of the sub-string.
2049  
2050  
2051  </font></p><p><font><b>Param<a name="param"></a>($name)</b></font></p>
2052  <p><font>Generates a bind placeholder portably. For most databases, the bind placeholder 
2053    is "?". However some databases use named bind parameters such as Oracle, eg 
2054    ":somevar". This allows us to portably define an SQL statement with bind parameters: 
2055  </font></p><pre><font>$sql = <font color="#993300">'insert into table (col1,col2) values ('</font>.$DB-&gt;Param('a').<font color="#993300">','</font>.$DB-&gt;Param('b').<font color="#993300">')'</font>;<br><font color="#006600"># generates 'insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)'<br># or        'insert into table (col1,col2) values (:a,:b)</font>'<br>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare($sql);<br>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt,array('one','two'));<br></font></pre>
2056  <font> </font>
2057  <p></p>
2058  <p><font><b>PrepareSP</b><b><a name="preparesp"></a></b><b>($sql,
2059  $cursor=false )</b></font></p>
2060  <p><font>When calling stored procedures in mssql and oci8 (oracle),
2061      and you might want to directly bind to parameters that return values, or
2062  for special LOB handling. PrepareSP() allows you to do so. </font></p>
2063  <p><font>Returns the same array or $sql string as Prepare( )
2064      above. If you do not need to bind to return values, you should use Prepare(
2065    ) instead.</font></p>
2066  <p><font>The 2nd parameter, $cursor is not used except with oci8.
2067      Setting it to true will force OCINewCursor to be called; this is to support
2068  output REF CURSORs. </font></p>
2069  <p><font>For examples of usage of PrepareSP( ), see InParameter(
2070  ) below. </font></p>
2071  <p><font>Note: in the mssql driver, preparing stored procedures
2072      requires a special function call, mssql_init( ), which is called by this
2073      function. PrepareSP( ) is available in all other drivers, and is emulated
2074    by calling Prepare( ). </font></p>
2075  <p><font><b> InParameter<a name="inparameter"></a>($stmt, $var,
2076    $name, $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )</b></font></p>
2077  <font>Binds a PHP variable as input to a stored procedure variable.
2078  The parameter <i>$stmt</i> is the value returned by PrepareSP(), <i>$var</i> is
2079  the PHP variable you want to bind, $name is the name of the stored procedure
2080  variable. Optional is <i>$maxLen</i>, the maximum length of the data to bind,
2081  and $type which is database dependant. Consult <a href="http://php.net/mssql_bind">mssql_bind</a> and <a href="http://php.net/ocibindbyname">ocibindbyname</a> docs
2082  at php.net for more info on legal values for $type. </font>
2083  <p>
2084  <font>InParameter() is a wrapper function that calls Parameter()
2085  with $isOutput=false. The advantage of this function is that it is self-documenting,
2086  because the $isOutput parameter is no longer needed. Only for mssql and oci8
2087  currently. </font></p>
2088  <p><font>Here is an example using oci8: </font></p>
2089  <pre><font><font color="green"># For oracle, Prepare and PrepareSP are identical</font>
2090  $stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP(
2091      <font color="#993300">"declare RETVAL integer; <br>    begin<br>    :RETVAL := </font><font color="#993300">SP_RUNSOMETHING</font><font color="#993300">(:myid,:group);<br>    end;"</font>);<br>$db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$id,'myid');<br>$db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$group,'group',64);<br>$db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL');<br>$db-&gt;Execute($stmt);<br></font></pre>
2092  <p><font> The same example using mssql:</font></p>
2093  <font> 
2094  </font><pre><font><font color="green"># @RETVAL = SP_RUNSOMETHING @myid,@group</font>
2095  $stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP(<font color="#993333">'<font color="#993300">SP_RUNSOMETHING</font>'</font>); <br><font color="green"># note that the parameter name does not have @ in front!</font>
2096  $db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$id,'myid');
2097  $db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$group,'group',64);
2098  <font color="green"># return value in mssql - RETVAL is hard-coded name</font> <br>$db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL');<br>$db-&gt;Execute($stmt); </font></pre>
2099  
2100  <p><font>Note that the only difference between the oci8 and mssql implementations is $sql.</font></p>
2101  <p>
2102  <font> If $type parameter is set to false, in mssql, $type will be dynamicly determined 
2103  based on the type of the PHP variable passed <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">(string 
2104  =&gt; SQLCHAR, boolean =&gt;SQLINT1, integer =&gt;SQLINT4 or float/double=&gt;SQLFLT8)</font>.
2105  </font></p><p><font> 
2106  In oci8, $type can be set to OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File), 
2107  OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). To 
2108  pass in a null, use<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> $db-&gt;Parameter($stmt, 
2109  $null=null, 'param')</font>. 
2110    </font></p><p><font><b> OutParameter<a name="outparameter"></a>($stmt, $var, $name, 
2111    $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )</b></font></p>
2112  <font>  Binds a PHP variable as output from a stored procedure variable. The parameter <i>$stmt</i>
2113   is the value returned by PrepareSP(), <i>$var</i> is the PHP variable you want to bind, <i>$name</i>
2114   is the name of the stored procedure variable. Optional is <i>$maxLen</i>, the maximum length of the
2115   data to bind, and <i>$type</i> which is database dependant. 
2116  </font><p>
2117  <font>  OutParameter() is a wrapper function that calls Parameter() with $isOutput=true. 
2118    The advantage of this function is that it is self-documenting, because
2119  the $isOutput parameter is no longer needed.  Only for mssql 
2120    and oci8 currently.
2121  </font></p><p>
2122  <font>For an example, see <a href="#inparameter">InParameter</a>.
2123  
2124  </font></p><p><font><b> Parameter<a name="parameter"></a>($stmt, $var, $name, $isOutput=false, 
2125    $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )</b></font></p>
2126  <p><font>Note: This function is deprecated, because of the new InParameter() and OutParameter() functions.
2127  These are superior because they are self-documenting, unlike Parameter().
2128  </font></p><p><font>Adds a bind parameter suitable for return values or special data handling (eg. 
2129    LOBs) after a statement has been prepared using PrepareSP(). Only for mssql 
2130    and oci8 currently. The parameters are:<br>
2131    <br>
2132    $<i><b>stmt</b></i> Statement returned by Prepare() or PrepareSP().<br>
2133    $<i><b>var</b></i> PHP variable to bind to. Make sure you pre-initialize it!<br>
2134    $<i><b>name</b></i> Name of stored procedure variable name to bind to.<br>
2135    [$<i><b>isOutput</b></i>] Indicates direction of parameter 0/false=IN 1=OUT 
2136    2= IN/OUT. This is ignored in oci8 as this driver auto-detects the direction.<br>
2137    [$<b>maxLen</b>] Maximum length of the parameter variable.<br>
2138    [$<b>type</b>] Consult <a href="http://php.net/mssql_bind">mssql_bind</a> and 
2139    <a href="http://php.net/ocibindbyname">ocibindbyname</a> docs at php.net for 
2140    more info on legal values for type.</font></p>
2141  <p><font>Lastly, in oci8, bind parameters can be reused without calling PrepareSP( ) 
2142    or Parameters again. This is not possible with mssql. An oci8 example:</font></p>
2143  <pre><font>$id = 0; $i = 0;<br>$stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP( <font color="#993300">"update table set val=:i where id=:id"</font>);<br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$id,'id');<br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$i, 'i');<br>for ($cnt=0; $cnt &lt; 1000; $cnt++) {<br>    $id = $cnt; <br>    $i = $cnt * $cnt; <font color="green"># works with oci8!</font>
2144      $db-&gt;Execute($stmt); <br>}</font></pre>
2145  <p><font><b>Bind<a name="bind"></a>($stmt, $var, $size=4001, $type=false, $name=false)</b></font></p>
2146   
2147  <p><font>This is a low-level function supported only by the oci8 
2148    driver. <b>Avoid using</b> unless you only want to support Oracle. The Parameter( 
2149    ) function is the recommended way to go with bind variables.</font></p>
2150  <p><font>Bind( ) allows you to use bind variables in your sql 
2151    statement. This binds a PHP variable to a name defined in an Oracle sql statement 
2152    that was previously prepared using Prepare(). Oracle named variables begin with 
2153    a colon, and ADOdb requires the named variables be called :0, :1, :2, :3, etc. 
2154    The first invocation of Bind() will match :0, the second invocation will match 
2155    :1, etc. Binding can provide 100% speedups for insert, select and update statements. 
2156    </font></p>
2157  <p>The other variables, $size sets the buffer size for data storage, $type is 
2158    the optional descriptor type OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File), 
2159    OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). 
2160    Lastly, instead of using the default :0, :1, etc names, you can define your 
2161    own bind-name using $name. 
2162  </p><p><font>The following example shows 3 bind variables being used: 
2163    p1, p2 and p3. These variables are bound to :0, :1 and :2.</font></p>
2164  <pre>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare("insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:0, :1, :2)");<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p1);<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p2);<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p3);<br>for ($i = 0; $i &lt; $max; $i++) { <br>   $p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;<br>   $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt);<br>}</pre>
2165  <p>You can also use named variables:</p>
2166  <pre>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare("insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:name0, :name1, :name2)");<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p1, "name0");<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p2, "name1");<br>$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p3, "name2");<br>for ($i = 0; $i &lt; $max; $i++) { <br>   $p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;<br>   $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt);<br>}</pre>
2167  <p><b>LogSQL($enable=true)<a name="logsql"></a></b></p>
2168  Call this method to install a SQL logging and timing function (using fnExecute). 
2169  Then all SQL statements are logged into an adodb_logsql table in a database. If 
2170  the adodb_logsql table does not exist, ADOdb will create the table if you have 
2171  the appropriate permissions. Returns the previous logging value (true for enabled, 
2172  false for disabled). Here are samples of the DDL for selected databases: 
2173  <p> 
2174  </p><pre>        <b>mysql:</b>
2175          CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
2176            created datetime NOT NULL,
2177            sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
2178            sql1 text NOT NULL,
2179            params text NOT NULL,
2180            tracer text NOT NULL,
2181            timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
2182          )
2183          
2184          <b>postgres:</b>
2185          CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
2186            created timestamp NOT NULL,
2187            sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
2188            sql1 text NOT NULL,
2189            params text NOT NULL,
2190            tracer text NOT NULL,
2191            timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
2192          )
2193          
2194          <b>mssql:</b>
2195          CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
2196            created datetime NOT NULL,
2197            sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
2198            sql1 varchar(4000) NOT NULL,
2199            params varchar(3000) NOT NULL,
2200            tracer varchar(500) NOT NULL,
2201            timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
2202          )
2203          
2204          <b>oci8:</b>
2205          CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
2206            created date NOT NULL,
2207            sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
2208            sql1 varchar(4000) NOT NULL,
2209            params varchar(4000),
2210            tracer varchar(4000),
2211            timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
2212          )
2213  </pre>
2214  Usage: 
2215  <pre>    $conn-&gt;LogSQL(); // turn on logging<br>      :<br>    $conn-&gt;Execute(...);<br>      :<br>    $conn-&gt;LogSQL(false); // turn off logging<br>    <br>    # output summary of SQL logging results<br>    $perf = NewPerfMonitor($conn);<br>    echo $perf-&gt;SuspiciousSQL();<br>    echo $perf-&gt;ExpensiveSQL();<br></pre>

2216  <p>One limitation of logging is that rollback also prevents SQL from being logged.
2217  </p><p>
2218  If you prefer to use another name for the table used to store the SQL, you can override it by calling 
2219  adodb_perf::table($tablename), where $tablename is the new table name (you will still need to manually
2220  create the table yourself). An example:
2221  </p><pre>    include ('adodb.inc.php');<br>    include('adodb-perf.inc.php');<br>    adodb_perf::table('my_logsql_table');<br></pre>
2222  Also see <a href="docs-perf.htm">Performance Monitor</a>. 
2223  <p><font><b>fnExecute and fnCacheExecute properties<a name="fnexecute" id="fnexecute"></a></b></font></p>
2224  <p>These two properties allow you to define bottleneck functions for all sql statements 
2225    processed by ADOdb. This allows you to perform statistical analysis and query-rewriting 
2226    of your sql. 
2227  </p><p><b>Examples of fnExecute</b></p>
2228  <p>Here is an example of using fnExecute, to count all cached queries and non-cached 
2229    queries, you can do this:</p>
2230  <pre><font color="#006600"># $db is the connection object</font>
2231  function CountExecs($db, $sql, $inputarray)
2232  {
2233  global $EXECS;
2234  
2235  if (!is_array(inputarray)) $EXECS++;
2236  <font color="#006600"># handle 2-dimensional input arrays</font>
2237  else if (is_array(reset($inputarray))) $EXECS += sizeof($inputarray);
2238  else $EXECS++;
2239  }
2240  
2241  <font color="#006600"># $db is the connection object</font>
2242  function CountCachedExecs($db, $secs2cache, $sql, $inputarray)
2243  {<br>global $CACHED; $CACHED++;<br>}<br><br>$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>$db-&gt;Connect(...);<br>$db-&gt;<strong>fnExecute</strong> = 'CountExecs';<br>$db-&gt;<strong>fnCacheExecute</strong> = 'CountCachedExecs';<br> :<br> :<br><font color="#006600"># After many sql statements:</font>`<br>printf("&lt;p&gt;Total queries=%d; total cached=%d&lt;/p&gt;",$EXECS+$CACHED, $CACHED);<br></pre>
2244  <p>The fnExecute function is called before the sql is parsed and executed, so 
2245    you can perform a query rewrite. If you are passing in a prepared statement, 
2246    then $sql is an array (see <a href="#prepare">Prepare</a>). The fnCacheExecute 
2247    function is only called if the recordset returned was cached.<font> 
2248    The function parameters match the Execute and CacheExecute functions respectively, 
2249    except that $this (the connection object) is passed as the first parameter.</font></p>
2250  <p>Since ADOdb 3.91, the behaviour of fnExecute varies depending on whether the 
2251    defined function returns a value. If it does not return a value, then the $sql 
2252    is executed as before. This is useful for query rewriting or counting sql queries. 
2253  </p><p> On the other hand, you might want to replace the Execute function with one 
2254    of your own design. If this is the case, then have your function return a value. 
2255    If a value is returned, that value is returned immediately, without any further 
2256    processing. This is used internally by ADOdb to implement LogSQL() functionality. 
2257  </p>
2258  <p>
2259  </p><hr>
2260  <h3><font>ADOConnection Utility Functions</font></h3>
2261  <p><font><b>BlankRecordSet<a name="blankrecordset"></a>([$queryid])</b></font></p>
2262  <p><font>No longer available - removed since 1.99.</font></p>
2263  <p><font><b>Concat<a name="concat"></a>($s1,$s2,....)</b></font></p>
2264  <p><font>Generates the sql string used to concatenate $s1, $s2, etc together. Uses the 
2265    string in the concat_operator field to generate the concatenation. Override 
2266    this function if a concatenation operator is not used, eg. MySQL.</font></p>
2267  <p><font>Returns the concatenated string.</font></p>
2268  <p><font><b>DBDate<a name="dbdate"></a>($date)</b></font></p>
2269  <p><font>Format the $<b>date</b> in the format the database accepts. This is used in 
2270    INSERT/UPDATE statements; for SELECT statements, use <a href="#sqldate">SQLDate</a>. 
2271    The $<b>date</b> parameter can be a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format 
2272    Y-m-d. Uses the fmtDate field, which holds the format to use. If null or false 
2273    or '' is passed in, it will be converted to an SQL null.</font></p>
2274  <p><font>Returns the date as a quoted string.</font></p>
2275  <p><font><b>DBTimeStamp<a name="dbtimestamp"></a>($ts)</b></font></p>
2276  <p><font>Format the timestamp $<b>ts</b> in the format the database accepts; this can 
2277    be a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d H:i:s. Uses the fmtTimeStamp 
2278    field, which holds the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed in, it 
2279    will be converted to an SQL null.</font></p>
2280  <p><font>Returns the timestamp as a quoted string.</font></p>
2281  <p><font><b>qstr<a name="qstr"></a>($s,[$magic_quotes_enabled</b>=false]<b>)</b></font></p>
2282  <p><font>Quotes a string to be sent to the database. The $<b>magic_quotes_enabled</b> 
2283    parameter may look funny, but the idea is if you are quoting a string extracted 
2284    from a POST/GET variable, then pass get_magic_quotes_gpc() as the second parameter. 
2285    This will ensure that the variable is not quoted twice, once by <i>qstr</i> 
2286    and once by the <i>magic_quotes_gpc</i>.</font></p>
2287  <p><font>Eg.<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> $s = $db-&gt;qstr(HTTP_GET_VARS['name'],get_magic_quotes_gpc());</font></font></p>
2288  <p><font>Returns the quoted string.</font></p>
2289  <p><font><b>Quote<a name="quote"></a>($s)</b></font></p>
2290  <p><font>Quotes the string $s, escaping the database specific quote character as appropriate. 
2291    Formerly checked magic quotes setting, but this was disabled since 3.31 for 
2292    compatibility with PEAR DB. 
2293  </font></p><p><font><b>Affected_Rows<a name="affected_rows"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2294  <p><font>Returns the number of rows affected by a update or delete statement. Returns 
2295    false if function not supported.</font></p>
2296  <p><font>Not supported by interbase/firebird currently. </font></p>
2297  <p><font><b>Insert_ID<a name="inserted_id"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2298  <p><font>Returns the last autonumbering ID inserted. Returns false if function not supported. 
2299  </font></p>
2300  <p><font>Only supported by databases that support auto-increment or object id's, such 
2301    as PostgreSQL, MySQL and MS SQL Server currently. PostgreSQL returns the OID, which 
2302    can change on a database reload.</font></p>
2303  <p><font><b>RowLock<a name="rowlock"></a>($table,$where)</b></font></p>
2304  <p><font>Lock a table row for the duration of a transaction. For example to lock record $id in table1:
2305  </font></p><pre><font>    $DB-&gt;StartTrans();<br>    $DB-&gt;RowLock("table1","rowid=$id");<br>    $DB-&gt;Execute($sql1);<br>    $DB-&gt;Execute($sql2);<br>    $DB-&gt;CompleteTrans();<br></font></pre>
2306  <p><font>Supported in db2, interbase, informix, mssql, oci8, postgres, sybase.
2307  </font></p><p><font><b>MetaDatabases<a name="metadatabases"></a>()</b></font></p>
2308  <p><font>Returns a list of databases available on the server as an array. You have to 
2309    connect to the server first. Only available for ODBC, MySQL and ADO.</font></p>
2310  <p><font><b>MetaTables<a name="metatables"></a>($ttype = false, $showSchema = false, 
2311    $mask=false)</b></font></p>
2312  <p><font>Returns an array of tables and views for the current database as an array. 
2313    The array should exclude system catalog tables if possible. To only show tables, 
2314    use $db-&gt;MetaTables('TABLES'). To show only views, use $db-&gt;MetaTables('VIEWS'). 
2315    The $showSchema parameter currently works only for DB2, and when set to true, 
2316    will add the schema name to the table, eg. "SCHEMA.TABLE". </font></p>
2317  <p><font>You can define a mask for matching. For example, setting $mask = 'TMP%' will 
2318    match all tables that begin with 'TMP'. Currently only mssql, oci8, odbc_mssql 
2319    and postgres* support $mask. 
2320  </font></p><p><font><b>MetaColumns<a name="metacolumns"></a>($table,$toupper=true)</b></font></p>
2321  <p><font>Returns an array of ADOFieldObject's, one field object for every column of 
2322    $table. A field object is a class instance with (name, type, max_length) defined.
2323    Currently Sybase does not recognise date types, and ADO cannot identify 
2324    the correct data type (so we default to varchar).   
2325   </font></p><p><font> The $toupper parameter determines whether we uppercase the table name 
2326   (required for some databases).
2327   </font></p><p><font>For schema support, pass in the $table parameter, "$schema.$tablename". This is only
2328   supported for selected databases.
2329  </font></p><p><font><b>MetaColumnNames<a name="metacolumnames"></a>($table,$numericIndex=false)</b></font></p>
2330  <p><font>Returns an array of column names for $table. Since ADOdb 4.22, this is an associative array, with the
2331  keys in uppercase. Set $numericIndex=true if you want the old behaviour of numeric indexes (since 4.23).
2332  </font></p><p>
2333  <font>e.g. array('FIELD1' =&gt; 'Field1', 'FIELD2'=&gt;'Field2')
2334  </font></p><p>
2335  </p><p><font><b>MetaPrimaryKeys<a name="metaprimarykeys"></a>($table,
2336        $owner=false)</b></font> 
2337  </p>
2338  <p><font>Returns an array containing column names that are the 
2339    primary keys of $table. Supported by mysql, odbc (including db2, odbc_mssql, 
2340  etc), mssql, postgres, interbase/firebird, oci8 currently. </font></p>
2341  <p><font>Views (and some tables) have primary keys, but sometimes this information is not available from the
2342  database. You can define a function  ADODB_View_PrimaryKeys($databaseType, $database, $view, $owner) that
2343  should return an array containing the fields that make up the primary key. If that function exists,
2344  it will be called when MetaPrimaryKeys() cannot find a primary key for a table or view.
2345  </font></p><pre><font>// In this example: dbtype = 'oci8', $db = 'mydb', $view = 'dataView', $owner = false <br>function ADODB_View_PrimaryKeys($dbtype,$db,$view,$owner)<br>{<br>    switch(strtoupper($view)) {<br>    case 'DATAVIEW': return array('DATAID');<br>    default: return false;<br>    }<br>}<br><br>$db = NewADOConnection('oci8');<br>$db-&gt;Connect('localhost','root','','mydb'); <br>$db-&gt;MetaPrimaryKeys('dataView');<br></font></pre>
2346  <p><font><b>ServerInfo<a name="serverinfo" id="serverinfo"></a>($table)</b></font> 
2347  </p>
2348  <p><font>Returns an array of containing two elements 'description' 
2349    and 'version'. The 'description' element contains the string description of 
2350    the database. The 'version' naturally holds the version number (which is also 
2351  a string).</font></p>
2352  <p><font><b>MetaForeignKeys<a name="metaforeignkeys"></a>($table, $owner=false, $upper=false)</b> 
2353  </font></p><p><font>Returns an associate array of foreign keys, or false if not supported. For 
2354    example, if table employee has a foreign key where employee.deptkey points to 
2355    dept_table.deptid, and employee.posn=posn_table.postionid and employee.poscategory=posn_table.category, 
2356    then $conn-&gt;MetaForeignKeys('employee') will return 
2357  </font></p><pre><font>    array(<br>        'dept_table' =&gt; array('deptkey=deptid'),<br>        'posn_table' =&gt; array('posn=positionid','poscategory=category')<br>    )<br></font></pre>
2358  <p><font>The optional schema or owner can be defined in $owner. If $upper is true, then 
2359    the table names (array keys) are upper-cased. 
2360  </font></p><hr>
2361  <h2><font>ADORecordSet<a name="adorecordset"></a></font></h2>
2362  <p><font>When an SQL statement successfully is executed by <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADOConnection-&gt;Execute($sql),</font>an 
2363    ADORecordSet object is returned. This object contains a virtual cursor so we 
2364    can move from row to row, functions to obtain information about the columns 
2365    and column types, and helper functions to deal with formating the results to 
2366    show to the user.</font></p>
2367  <h3><font>ADORecordSet Fields</font></h3>
2368  <p><font><b>fields: </b>Array containing the current row. This is not associative, but 
2369    is an indexed array from 0 to columns-1. See also the function <b><a href="#fields">Fields</a></b>, 
2370    which behaves like an associative array.</font></p>
2371  <p><font><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database. 
2372    Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</font></p>
2373  <p><font><b>blobSize</b>: Maximum size of a char, string or varchar object before it 
2374    is treated as a Blob (Blob's should be shown with textarea's). See the <a href="#metatype">MetaType</a> 
2375    function.</font></p>
2376  <p><font><b>sql</b>: Holds the sql statement used to generate this record set.</font></p>
2377  <p><font><b>canSeek</b>: Set to true if Move( ) function works.</font></p>
2378  <p><font><b>EOF</b>: True if we have scrolled the cursor past the last record.</font></p>
2379  <h3><font>ADORecordSet Functions</font></h3>
2380  <p><font><b>ADORecordSet( )</b></font></p>
2381  <p><font>Constructer. Normally you never call this function yourself.</font></p>
2382  <p><font><b>GetAssoc<a name="getassoc"></a>([$force_array])</b></font></p>
2383  <p><font>Generates an associative array from the recordset. Note that is this function 
2384    is also <a href="#getassoc1">available</a> in the connection object. More details 
2385    can be found there.</font></p>
2386  <font> </font>
2387  <p><font><b>GetArray<a name="getarray"></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></font></p>
2388  <p><font>Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current
2389      cursor position, indexed from 0 to $number_of_rows - 1. If $number_of_rows
2390    is undefined, till EOF.</font></p>
2391  <p><font><b>GetRows<a name="getrows"></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></font></p>
2392  <font>Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current
2393  cursor position. Synonym for GetArray() for compatibility with Microsoft ADO. </font>
2394  <p><font> <b>GetMenu<a name="getmenu"></a>($name, [$default_str=''],
2395    [$blank1stItem=true], [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></font></p>
2396  <p><font>Generate a HTML menu (&lt;select&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;/select&gt;).
2397      The first column of the recordset (fields[0]) will hold the string to display
2398      in the option tags. If the recordset has more than 1 column, the second column
2399      (fields[1]) is the value to send back to the web server.. The menu will be
2400  given the name $<i>name</i>. </font></p>
2401  <p><font> If $<i>default_str</i> is defined, then if $<i>default_str</i> ==
2402      fields[0], that field is selected. If $<i>blank1stItem</i> is true, the first
2403      option is empty. You can also set the first option strings by setting $blank1stItem
2404    = "$value:$text".</font></p>
2405  <p><font>$<i>Default_str</i> can be array for a multiple select
2406  listbox.</font></p>
2407  <p><font>To get a listbox, set the $<i>size</i> to a non-zero
2408      value (or pass $default_str as an array). If $<i>multiple_select</i> is true
2409      then a listbox will be generated with $<i>size</i> items (or if $size==0,
2410      then 5 items) visible, and we will return an array to a server. Lastly use
2411    $<i>moreAttr </i> to add additional attributes such as javascript or styles. </font></p>
2412  <p><font>Menu Example 1: <code>GetMenu('menu1','A',true)</code> will
2413      generate a menu:
2414      <select name="menu1"><option> </option><option value="1" selected="selected">A </option><option value="2">B </option><option value="3">C </option></select>
2415  for the data (A,1), (B,2), (C,3). Also see <a href="#ex5">example 5</a>.</font></p>
2416  <p><font>Menu Example 2: For the same data, <code>GetMenu('menu1',array('A','B'),false)</code> will
2417      generate a menu with both A and B selected: <br>
2418      <select name="menu1" multiple="multiple" size="3"><option value="1" selected="selected">A </option><option value="2" selected="selected">B </option><option value="3">C </option></select>
2419  </font></p>
2420  <p><font> <b>GetMenu2<a name="getmenu2"></a>($name, [$default_str=''],
2421    [$blank1stItem=true], [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></font></p>
2422  <p><font>This is nearly identical to GetMenu, except that the
2423    $<i>default_str</i> is matched to fields[1] (the option values).</font></p>
2424  <p><font>Menu Example 3: Given the data in menu example 2, <code>GetMenu2('menu1',array('1','2'),false)</code> will
2425      generate a menu with both A and B selected in menu example 2, but this time
2426      the selection is based on the 2nd column, which holds the values to return
2427  to the Web server. </font></p>
2428  <p><font><b>UserDate<a name="userdate"></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></font></p>
2429  <p><font>Converts the date string $<i>str</i> to another format.
2430      The date format is Y-m-d, or Unix timestamp format. The default $<i>fmt</i> is
2431  Y-m-d.</font></p>
2432  <p><font><b>UserTimeStamp<a name="usertimestamp"></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></font></p>
2433  <p><font>Converts the timestamp string $<b>str</b> to another
2434      format. The timestamp format is Y-m-d H:i:s, as in '2002-02-28 23:00:12',
2435      or Unix timestamp format. UserTimeStamp calls UnixTimeStamp to parse $<i>str</i>,
2436  and $<i>fmt</i> defaults to Y-m-d H:i:s if not defined. </font></p>
2437  <p><font><b>UnixDate<a name="unixdate"></a>($str)</b></font></p>
2438  <p><font>Parses the date string $<b>str</b> and returns it in
2439      unix mktime format (eg. a number indicating the seconds after January 1st,
2440      1970). Expects the date to be in Y-m-d H:i:s format, except for Sybase and
2441      Microsoft SQL Server, where M d Y is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings
2442    are controlled by a global array, which might need localisation).</font></p>
2443  <p><font>This function is available in both ADORecordSet and
2444  ADOConnection since 1.91.</font></p>
2445  <p><font><b>UnixTimeStamp<a name="unixtimestamp"></a>($str)</b></font></p>
2446  <p><font>Parses the timestamp string $<b>str</b> and returns
2447      it in unix mktime format (eg. a number indicating the seconds after January
2448      1st, 1970). Expects the date to be in "Y-m-d, H:i:s" (1970-12-24, 00:00:00)
2449      or "Y-m-d H:i:s" (1970-12-24 00:00:00) or "YmdHis" (19701225000000) format,
2450      except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where "M d Y h:i:sA" (Dec 25
2451      1970 00:00:00AM) is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled
2452  by a global array, which might need localisation).</font></p>
2453  <font> 
2454  </font><p><font>This function is available in both ADORecordSet
2455      and ADOConnection since 1.91. </font></p>
2456  <p><font><b>OffsetDate<a name="offsetdate"></a>($dayFraction,
2457    $basedate=false)</b></font></p>
2458  <p><font>Returns a string with the native SQL functions to calculate
2459      future and past dates based on $basedate in a portable fashion. If $basedate
2460      is not defined, then the current date (at 12 midnight) is used. Returns the
2461    SQL string that performs the calculation when passed to Execute(). </font></p>
2462  <p><font>For example, in Oracle, to find the date and time that
2463    is 2.5 days from today, you can use:</font></p>
2464  <pre><font># get date one week from now<br>$fld = $conn-&gt;OffsetDate(7); // returns "(trunc(sysdate)+7")</font></pre>

2465  <pre><font># get date and time that is 60 hours from current date and time<br>$fld = $conn-&gt;OffsetDate(2.5, $conn-&gt;sysTimeStamp);    // returns "(sysdate+2.5)"<br><br>$conn-&gt;Execute("UPDATE TABLE SET dodate=$fld WHERE ID=$id");</font></pre>

2466  <p><font> This function is available for mysql, mssql, oracle, oci8 and postgresql drivers 
2467    since 2.13. It might work with other drivers provided they allow performing
2468    numeric day arithmetic on dates.</font></p>
2469  <font> </font>
2470  <p><font><b>SQLDate<a name="sqldate"></a>($dateFormat, $basedate=false)</b></font></p>
2471  <font>Returns a string which contains the native SQL functions
2472  to format a date or date column $basedate. This is used in SELECT statements.
2473  For INSERT/UPDATE statements, use <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a>. It uses a case-sensitive
2474  $dateFormat, which supports: </font>
2475  <pre><font> Y: 4-digit Year<br> Q: Quarter (1-4)<br> M: Month (Jan-Dec)<br> m: Month (01-12)<br> d: Day (01-31)<br> H: Hour (00-23)<br> h: Hour (1-12)<br> i: Minute (00-59)<br> s: Second (00-60)<br> A: AM/PM indicator</font></pre>
2476  <p><font>All other characters are treated as strings. You can
2477      also use \ to escape characters. Available on selected databases, including
2478  mysql, postgresql, mssql, oci8 and DB2. </font></p>
2479  <p><font>This is useful in writing portable sql statements that
2480      GROUP BY on dates. For example to display total cost of goods sold broken
2481  by quarter (dates are stored in a field called postdate): </font></p>
2482  <pre><font> $sqlfn = $db-&gt;SQLDate('Y-\QQ','postdate'); # get sql that formats postdate to output 2002-Q1<br> $sql = "SELECT $sqlfn,SUM(cogs) FROM table GROUP BY $sqlfn ORDER BY 1 desc";<br> </font></pre>

2483  <p><font><b>MoveNext<a name="movenext"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2484  <p><font>Move the internal cursor to the next row. The <i>$this-&gt;fields</i> array
2485      is automatically updated. Returns false if unable to do so (normally because
2486  EOF has been reached), otherwise true. </font></p>
2487  <p><font> If EOF is reached, then the $this-&gt;fields array
2488      is set to false (this was only implemented consistently in ADOdb 3.30). For
2489      the pre-3.30 behaviour of $this-&gt;fields (at EOF), set the global variable
2490    $ADODB_COMPAT_FETCH = true.</font></p>
2491  <p><font>Example:</font></p>
2492  <pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>if ($rs) <br>    while (!$rs-&gt;EOF) {<br>         ProcessArray($rs-&gt;fields);    <br>        $rs-&gt;MoveNext();<br>    } </font></pre>
2493  <p><font><b>Move<a name="move"></a>($to)</b></font></p>
2494  <p><font>Moves the internal cursor to a specific row $<b>to</b>.
2495      Rows are zero-based eg. 0 is the first row. The <b>fields</b> array is automatically
2496      updated. For databases that do not support scrolling internally, ADOdb will
2497      simulate forward scrolling. Some databases do not support backward scrolling.
2498      If the $<b>to</b> position is after the EOF, $<b>to</b> will move to the
2499      end of the RecordSet for most databases. Some obscure databases using odbc
2500    might not behave this way.</font></p>
2501  <p><font>Note: This function uses <i>absolute positioning</i>,
2502  unlike Microsoft's ADO.</font></p>
2503  <p><font>Returns true or false. If false, the internal cursor
2504      is not moved in most implementations, so AbsolutePosition( ) will return
2505    the last cursor position before the Move( ). </font></p>
2506  <p><font><b>MoveFirst<a name="movefirst"></a>()</b></font></p>
2507  <p><font>Internally calls Move(0). Note that some databases do
2508  not support this function.</font></p>
2509  <p><font><b>MoveLast<a name="movelast"></a>()</b></font></p>
2510  <p><font>Internally calls Move(RecordCount()-1). Note that some
2511    databases do not support this function.</font></p>
2512  <p><font><b>GetRowAssoc</b><a name="getrowassoc"></a>($toUpper=true)</font></p>
2513  <p><font>Returns an associative array containing the current
2514      row. The keys to the array are the column names. The column names are upper-cased
2515    for easy access. To get the next row, you will still need to call MoveNext(). </font></p>
2516  <p><font>For example:<br>
2517  Array ( [ID] =&gt; 1 [FIRSTNAME] =&gt; Caroline [LASTNAME] =&gt; Miranda [CREATED]
2518  =&gt; 2001-07-05 ) </font></p>
2519  <p><font>Note: do not use GetRowAssoc() with $ADODB_FETCH_MODE
2520      = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Because they have the same functionality, they will
2521    interfere with each other.</font></p>
2522  <font> 
2523  </font><p><font><b>AbsolutePage<a name="absolutepage"></a>($page=-1) </b></font></p>
2524  <p><font>Returns the current page. Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. 
2525    See <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</font></p>
2526  <font>
2527  <p><b>AtFirstPage<a name="atfirstpage">($status='')</a></b></p>
2528  <p>Returns true if at first page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute()
2529    to be called. See <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</p>
2530  <p><b>AtLastPage<a name="atlastpage">($status='')</a></b></p>
2531  <p>Returns true if at last page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute()
2532    to be called. See <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</p>
2533  <p><b>Fields</b><a name="fields"></a>(<b>$colname</b>)</p>
2534  <p>Returns the value of the associated column $<b>colname</b> for the current
2535    row. The column name is case-insensitive.</p>
2536  <p>This is a convenience function. For higher performance, use <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>. </p>
2537  <p><b>FetchRow</b><a name="fetchrow"></a>()</p> 
2538  </font><p><font>Returns array containing current row, or false
2539      if EOF. FetchRow( ) internally moves to the next record after returning the
2540      current row. </font></p>
2541  <p><font>Warning: Do not mix using FetchRow() with MoveNext().</font></p>
2542  <p><font>Usage:</font></p>
2543  <pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>if ($rs)<br>    while ($arr = $rs-&gt;FetchRow()) {<br>       &nbsp;&nbsp;# process $arr    <br>    }</font></pre>

2544  <p><font><b>FetchInto</b><a name="fetchinto"></a>(<b>&amp;$array</b>)</font></p>
2545  <p><font> Sets $array to the current row. Returns PEAR_Error
2546      object if EOF, 1 if ok (DB_OK constant). If PEAR is undefined, false is returned
2547      when EOF. FetchInto( ) internally moves to the next record after returning
2548    the current row. </font></p>
2549  <p><font> FetchRow() is easier to use. See above.</font></p>
2550  <font> </font>
2551  <p><font><b>FetchField<a name="fetchfield"></a>($column_number)</b></font></p>
2552  <p><font>Returns an object containing the <b>name</b>, <b>type</b> and <b>max_length</b> of
2553      the associated field. If the max_length cannot be determined reliably, it
2554      will be set to -1. The column numbers are zero-based. See <a href="#ex2">example
2555    2.</a></font></p>
2556  <p><font><b>FieldCount<a name="fieldcount"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2557  <p><font>Returns the number of fields (columns) in the record
2558  set.</font></p>
2559  <p><font><b>RecordCount<a name="recordcount"></a>( )</b></font></p>
2560  <p><font>Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the
2561      number of records returned cannot be determined from the database driver
2562      API, we will buffer all rows and return a count of the rows after all the
2563      records have been retrieved. This buffering can be disabled (for performance
2564      reasons) by setting the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false. When disabled,
2565      RecordCount( ) will return -1 for certain databases. See the supported databases
2566    list above for more details. </font></p>
2567  <p><font> RowCount is a synonym for RecordCount.</font></p>
2568  <p><font><b>PO_RecordCount<a name="po_recordcount"></a>($table,
2569  $where)</b></font></p>
2570  <p><font>Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the
2571      database does not support this, it will perform a SELECT COUNT(*) on the
2572      table $table, with the given $where condition to return an estimate of the
2573    recordset size.</font></p>
2574  <p><font>$numrows = $rs-&gt;PO_RecordCount("articles_table", "group=$group");</font></p>
2575  <font><b> NextRecordSet<a name="nextrecordset" id="nextrecordset"></a>()</b> </font>
2576  <p><font>For databases that allow multiple recordsets to be returned
2577      in one query, this function allows you to switch to the next recordset. Currently
2578    only supported by mssql driver.</font></p>
2579  <pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('execute return_multiple_rs');<br>$arr1 = $rs-&gt;GetArray();<br>$rs-&gt;NextRecordSet();<br>$arr2 = $rs-&gt;GetArray();</font></pre>
2580  <p><font><b>FetchObject<a name="fetchobject"></a>($toupper=true)</b></font></p>
2581  <p><font>Returns the current row as an object. If you set $toupper
2582      to true, then the object fields are set to upper-case. Note: The newer FetchNextObject()
2583    is the recommended way of accessing rows as objects. See below.</font></p>
2584  <p><font><b>FetchNextObject<a name="fetchnextobject"></a>($toupper=true)</b></font></p>
2585  <p><font>Gets the current row as an object and moves to the next
2586      row automatically. Returns false if at end-of-file. If you set $toupper to
2587    true, then the object fields are set to upper-case.</font></p>
2588  <pre><font>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select firstname,lastname from table');<br>if ($rs) {<br>    while ($o = $rs-&gt;FetchNextObject()) {<br>        print "$o-&gt;FIRSTNAME, $o-&gt;LASTNAME&lt;BR&gt;";<br>    }<br>}<br></font></pre>
2589  <p><font>There is some trade-off in speed in using FetchNextObject().
2590  If performance is important, you should access rows with the <code>fields[]</code> array. <b>FetchObj<a name="fetchobj" id="fetchobj"></a>()</b> </font></p>
2591  <p><font>Returns the current record as an object. Fields are
2592      not upper-cased, unlike FetchObject.  
2593  </font></p>
2594  <p><font><b>FetchNextObj<a name="fetchnextobj" id="fetchnextobj"></a>()</b> </font></p>
2595  <p><font>Returns the current record as an object and moves to
2596      the next record. If EOF, false is returned. Fields are not upper-cased, unlike
2597    FetctNextObject. </font></p>
2598  <font>
2599  <p><b>CurrentRow<a name="currentrow"></a>( )</b></p>
2600  <p>Returns the current row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>
2601  <p><b>AbsolutePosition<a name="abspos"></a>( )</b></p>
2602  <p>Synonym for <b>CurrentRow</b> for compatibility with ADO. Returns the current
2603    row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>
2604  <p><b>MetaType<a name="metatype"></a>($nativeDBType[,$field_max_length],[$fieldobj])</b></p>
2605  <p>Determine what <i>generic</i> meta type a database field type is given its
2606    native type $<b>nativeDBType</b> as a string and the length of the field $<b>field_max_length</b>.
2607    Note that field_max_length can be -1 if it is not known. The field object returned
2608    by FetchField() can be passed in $<b>fieldobj</b> or as the 1st parameter <b>$nativeDBType</b>.
2609    This is useful for databases such as <i>mysql</i> which has additional properties
2610    in the field object such as <i>primary_key</i>. </p>
2611  <p>Uses the field <b>blobSize</b> and compares it with $<b>field_max_length</b> to
2612    determine whether the character field is actually a blob.</p>
2613  For example, $db-&gt;MetaType('char') will return 'C'.
2614  <p>Returns:</p>
2615  <ul>
2616    <li><b>C</b>: Character fields that should be shown in a &lt;input type="text"&gt; tag. </li>
2617    <li><b>X</b>: Clob (character large objects), or large text fields that should
2618      be shown in a &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
2619    <li><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
2620    <li><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
2621    <li><b>L</b>: Logical field (boolean or bit-field)</li>
2622    <li><b>N</b>: Numeric field. Includes decimal, numeric, floating point, and
2623      real. </li>
2624    <li><b>I</b>:&nbsp; Integer field. </li>
2625    <li><b>R</b>: Counter or Autoincrement field. Must be numeric.</li>
2626    <li><b>B</b>: Blob, or binary large objects. </li>
2627  </ul> 
2628  </font><p><font> Since ADOdb 3.0, MetaType accepts $fieldobj
2629      as the first parameter, instead of $nativeDBType. </font></p>
2630  <font> </font>
2631  <p><font><b>Close( )<a name="rsclose"></a></b></font></p>
2632  <p><font>Closes the recordset, cleaning all memory and resources
2633  associated with the recordset. </font></p>
2634  <p>
2635  <font>If memory management is not an issue, you do not need to
2636  call this function as recordsets are closed for you by PHP at the end of the
2637  script. SQL statements such as INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE do not really return a recordset,
2638  so you do not have to call Close() for such SQL statements.</font></p>
2639  <hr>
2640  <h3><font>function rs2html<a name="rs2html"></a>($adorecordset,[$tableheader_attributes],
2641    [$col_titles])</font></h3>
2642  <p><font>This is a standalone function (rs2html = recordset to
2643      html) that is similar to PHP's <i>odbc_result_all</i> function, it prints
2644      a ADORecordSet, $<b>adorecordset</b> as a HTML table. $<b>tableheader_attributes</b> allow
2645      you to control the table <i>cellpadding</i>, <i>cellspacing</i> and <i>border</i> attributes.
2646      Lastly you can replace the database column names with your own column titles
2647      with the array $<b>col_titles</b>. This is designed more as a quick debugging
2648    mechanism, not a production table recordset viewer.</font></p>
2649  <p><font>You will need to include the file <i>tohtml.inc.php</i>.</font></p>
2650  <p><font>Example of rs2html:<b><font color="#336600"><a name="exrs2html"></a></font></b></font></p>
2651  <pre><font><b><font color="#336600">&lt;?<br>include('tohtml.inc.php')</font></b>; # load code common to ADOdb <br><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb <br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');   # create a connection <br>$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db<br>$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers'; <br>$<font color="#663300">rs</font>   = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;Execute($sql); <br><font color="#336600"><b>rs2html</b></font><b>($<font color="#663300">rs</font>,'<i>border=2 cellpadding=3</i>',array('<i>Customer Name','Customer ID</i>'));<br>?&gt;</b></font></pre>

2652  <hr>
2653  <h3><font>Differences between this ADOdb library and Microsoft
2654  ADO<a name="adodiff"></a></font></h3>
2655  <ol>
2656  <font>
2657  <li>ADOdb only supports recordsets created by a connection object. Recordsets
2658    cannot be created independently.</li>
2659  <li>ADO properties are implemented as functions in ADOdb. This makes it easier
2660    to implement any enhanced ADO functionality in the future.</li>
2661  <li>ADOdb's <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADORecordSet-&gt;Move()</font> uses
2662    absolute positioning, not relative. Bookmarks are not supported.</li>
2663  <li><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADORecordSet-&gt;AbsolutePosition() </font>cannot
2664    be used to move the record cursor.</li>
2665  <li>ADO Parameter objects are not supported. Instead we have the ADOConnection::<a href="#parameter">Parameter</a>(
2666    ) function, which provides a simpler interface for calling preparing parameters
2667    and calling stored procedures.</li>
2668  <li>Recordset properties for paging records are available, but implemented as
2669    in <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</li>
2670  </font></ol>
2671  <hr>
2672  <h1><font>Database Driver Guide<a name="driverguide"></a></font></h1>
2673  <p><font>This describes how to create a class to connect to a
2674      new database. To ensure there is no duplication of work, kindly email me
2675    at jlim#natsoft.com.my if you decide to create such a class.</font></p>
2676  <p><font>First decide on a name in lower case to call the database
2677    type. Let's say we call it xbase. </font></p>
2678  <p><font>Then we need to create two classes ADODB_xbase and ADORecordSet_xbase
2679    in the file adodb-xbase.inc.php.</font></p>
2680  <p><font>The simplest form of database driver is an adaptation
2681      of an existing ODBC driver. Then we just need to create the class <i>ADODB_xbase
2682      extends ADODB_odbc</i> to support the new <b>date</b> and <b>timestamp</b> formats,
2683      the <b>concatenation</b> operator used, <b>true</b> and <b>false</b>. For
2684      the<i> ADORecordSet_xbase extends ADORecordSet_odbc </i>we need to change
2685    the <b>MetaType</b> function. See<b> adodb-vfp.inc.php</b> as an example.</font></p>
2686  <p><font>More complicated is a totally new database driver that
2687      connects to a new PHP extension. Then you will need to implement several
2688      functions. Fortunately, you do not have to modify most of the complex code.
2689      You only need to override a few stub functions. See <b>adodb-mysql.inc.php</b> for
2690    example.</font></p>
2691  <p><font>The default date format of ADOdb internally is YYYY-MM-DD
2692      (Ansi-92). All dates should be converted to that format when passing to an
2693      ADOdb date function. See Oracle for an example how we use ALTER SESSION to
2694    change the default date format in _pconnect _connect.</font></p>
2695  <p><font><b>ADOConnection Functions to Override</b></font></p>
2696  <p><font>Defining a constructor for your ADOConnection derived
2697    function is optional. There is no need to call the base class constructor.</font></p>
2698  <p><font>_<b>connect</b>: Low level implementation of Connect.
2699    Returns true or false. Should set the _<b>connectionID</b>.</font></p>
2700  <p><font>_<b>pconnect:</b> Low level implemention of PConnect.
2701    Returns true or false. Should set the _<b>connectionID</b>.</font></p>
2702  <p><font>_<b>query</b>: Execute a query. Returns the queryID,
2703  or false.</font></p>
2704  <p><font>_<b>close: </b>Close the connection -- PHP should clean
2705  up all recordsets. </font></p>
2706  <p><font><b>ErrorMsg</b>: Stores the error message in the private
2707  variable _errorMsg. </font></p>
2708  <p><font><b>ADOConnection Fields to Set</b></font></p>
2709  <p><font>_<b>bindInputArray</b>: Set to true if binding of parameters
2710    for SQL inserts and updates is allowed using ?, eg. as with ODBC.</font></p>
2711  <p><font><b>fmtDate</b></font></p>
2712  <p><font><b>fmtTimeStamp</b></font></p>
2713  <p><font><b>true</b></font></p>
2714  <p><font><b>false</b></font></p>
2715  <p><font><b>concat_operator</b></font></p>
2716  <p><font><b>replaceQuote</b></font></p>
2717  <p><font><b>hasLimit</b> support SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 10
2718  of MySQL.</font></p>
2719  <p><font><b>hasTop</b> support Microsoft style SELECT TOP 10
2720  * FROM TABLE.</font></p>
2721  <p><font><b>ADORecordSet Functions to Override</b></font></p>
2722  <p><font>You will need to define a constructor for your ADORecordSet
2723    derived class that calls the parent class constructor.</font></p>
2724  <p><font><b>FetchField: </b> as documented above in ADORecordSet</font></p>
2725  <p><font>_<b>initrs</b>: low level initialization of the recordset:
2726      setup the _<b>numOfRows</b> and _<b>numOfFields</b> fields -- called by the
2727    constructor.</font></p>
2728  <p><font>_<b>seek</b>: seek to a particular row. Do not load
2729      the data into the fields array. This is done by _fetch. Returns true or false.
2730      Note that some implementations such as Interbase do not support seek. Set
2731    canSeek to false.</font></p>
2732  <p><font>_<b>fetch</b>: fetch a row using the database extension
2733      function and then move to the next row. Sets the <b>fields</b> array. If
2734      the parameter $ignore_fields is true then there is no need to populate the <b>fields</b> array,
2735    just move to the next row. then Returns true or false.</font></p>
2736  <p><font>_<b>close</b>: close the recordset</font></p>
2737  <p><font><b>Fields</b>: If the array row returned by the PHP
2738      extension is not an associative one, you will have to override this. See
2739      adodb-odbc.inc.php for an example. For databases such as MySQL and MSSQL
2740      where an associative array is returned, there is no need to override this
2741    function.</font></p>
2742  <p><font><b>ADOConnection Fields to Set</b></font></p>
2743  <p><font>canSeek: Set to true if the _seek function works.</font></p>
2744  <h2><font>ToDo:</font></h2>
2745  <p><font>See the <a href="http://php.weblogs.com/adodb-todo-roadmap">RoadMap</a> article.</font></p>
2746  <p><font>Also see the ADOdb <a href="http://php.weblogs.com/adodb_csv">proxy</a> article
2747      for bridging Windows and Unix databases using http remote procedure calls.
2748      For your education, visit <a href="http://palslib.com/">palslib.com</a> for
2749      database info, and read this article on <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/php-book/optimizing-debugging-php.php">Optimizing
2750    PHP</a>. </font></p>
2751  
2752  <h2><font>Change Log<a name="Changes"></a><a name="changes"></a><a name="changelog"></a></font></h2>
2753  <p><a name="4.61"></a><b>4.61 ?? 2005</b>
2754  <p>MySQLi added support for mysqli_connect_errno() and mysqli_connect_error().
2755  <p>Massive improvements to alpha PDO driver.
2756  <p>Quote string bind parameters logged by performance monitor for easy type checking. Thx Jason Judge.
2757  <p>Added support for $role when connecting with Interbase/firebird.
2758  <p>Added support for enum recognition in MetaColumns() mysql and mysqli. Thx Amedeo Petrella.
2759  <p>The sybase_ase driver contributed by Interakt Online. Thx Cristian Marin cristic#interaktonline.com.
2760  <p>Removed not_null, has_default, and default_value from ADOFieldObject.
2761  <p>Sessions code, fixed quoting of keys when handling LOBs in session write() function.
2762  <p>Sessions code, added adodb_session_regenerate_id(), to reduce risk of session hijacking by changing session cookie dynamically. Thx Joe Li.
2763  <p>Perf monitor, polling for CPU did not work for PHP 4.3.10 and 5.0.0-5.0.3 due to PHP bugs, so we special case these versions.
2764  <p>Postgresql, UpdateBlob() added code to handle type==CLOB.
2765  <p><a name="4.60"></a><b>4.60 24 Jan 2005</b>
2766  <p>Implemented PEAR DB's autoExecute(). Simplified design because I don't like using constants when
2767  strings work fine.
2768  <p>_rs2serialize will now update $rs->sql and $rs->oldProvider.
2769  <p>Added autoExecute().
2770  <p>Added support for postgres8 driver. Currently just remapped to postgres7 driver.
2771  <p>Changed oci8 _query(), so that OCIBindByName() sets the length to -1 if element size is > 4000. This provides better support
2772  for LONGs.
2773  <p>Added SetDateLocale() support for netherlands (Nl).
2774  <p>Spelling error in pivot code ($iff should be $iif).
2775  </p><p>mysql insert_id() did not work with mysql 3.x. Fixed.
2776  </p><p>"\r\n" not converted to spaces correctly in exporting data. Fixed.
2777  </p><p>_nconnect() in mysqli did not return value correctly. Fixed.
2778  </p><p>Arne Eckmann contributed danish language file.
2779  </p><p>Added clone() support to FetchObject() for PHP5.<br>
2780  </p>
2781  <p>Removed SQL_CUR_USE_ODBC from odbc_mssql.<br>
2782  </p>
2783  <p><a name="4.55"></a><b>4.55 5 Jan 2005</b>
2784  </p><p>Found bug in Execute() with bind params for db's that do not support binding natively.
2785  </p><p>DropSequence() now correctly uses default parameter.
2786  </p><p>Now Execute() ignores locale for floats, so 1.23 is NEVER converted to 1,23.
2787  </p><p>SetFetchMode() not properly saved in adodb-perf, suspicious sql and expensive sql. Fixed.
2788  </p><p>Added INET to postgresql metatypes. Thx motzel.
2789  </p><p>Allow oracle hints to work when counting with _adodb_getcount in adodb-lib.inc.php. Thx Chris Wrye.
2790  </p><p>Changed mysql insert_id() to use SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID().
2791  </p><p>If alter col in datadict does not modify col type/size of actual
2792  col, then it is removed from alter col code. By Mark Newham. Not
2793  perfect as MetaType() !== ActualType().
2794  </p><p>Added handling of view fields in metacolumns() for postgresql. Thx Renato De Giovanni.
2795  </p><p>Added to informix MetaPrimaryKeys and MetaColumns fixes for null bit. Thx to Cecilio Albero.
2796  </p><p>Removed obsolete connection_timeout() from perf code.
2797  </p><p>Added support for arrayClass in adodb-csv.inc.php.
2798  </p><p>RSFilter now accepts methods of the form $array($obj, 'methodname'). Thx to blake#near-time.com.
2799  </p><p>Changed CacheFlush to $cmd = 'rm -rf '.$ADODB_CACHE_DIR.'/[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]/'; 
2800  </p><p>For better cursor concurrency, added code to free ref cursors in
2801  oci8 when $rs-&gt;Close() is called. Note that CLose() is called
2802  internally by the Get* functions too.
2803  </p><p>Added IIF support for access when pivoting.  Thx Volodia Krupach.
2804  </p><p>Added mssql datadict support for timestamp. Thx Alexios.
2805  </p><p>Informix pager fix. By Mario Ramirez.
2806  </p><p>ADODB_TABLE_REGEX now includes ':'. By Mario Ramirez.
2807  </p><p>Mark Newnham contributed MetaIndexes for oci8 and db2.
2808  </p><p><a name="4.54"></a><b>4.54 5 Nov 2004</b>
2809  </p><p>
2810  Now you can set $db-&gt;charSet = ?? before doing a Connect() in oci8.
2811  </p><p>
2812  Added adodbFetchMode to sqlite.
2813  </p><p>
2814  Perf code, added a string typecast to substr in adodb_log_sql().
2815  </p><p>
2816  Postgres: Changed BlobDecode() to use po_loread, added new $maxblobsize parameter, and now it returns the blob instead
2817  of sending it to stdout - make sure to mention that as a compat warning.
2818  Also added $db-&gt;IsOID($oid) function; uses a heuristic, not guaranteed to work 100%.
2819  </p><p>
2820  Contributed arabic language file by "El-Shamaa, Khaled" k.el-shamaa#cgiar.org
2821  </p><p>
2822  PHP5 exceptions did not handle @ protocol properly. Fixed.
2823  </p><p>
2824  Added ifnull handling for postgresql (using coalesce).
2825  </p><p>
2826  Added  metatables() support for Postgresql 8.0 (no longer uses pg_% dictionary tables).
2827  </p><p>
2828  Improved Sybase ErrorMsg() function. By Gaetano Giunta.
2829  </p><p>
2830  Improved oci8 SelectLimit() to use Prepare(). By Cristiano Duarte.
2831  </p><p>
2832  Type-cast $row parameter in ifx_fetch_row() to int. Thx stefan bodgan.
2833  </p><p>Ralf becker contributed improvements in postgresql, sapdb, mysql data dictionary handling:<br>
2834  - MySql and Postgres MetaType was reporting every int column which was 
2835  part of a primary key and unique as serial<br>
2836  - Postgres was not reporting the scale of decimal types<br>
2837  - MaxDB was padding the defaults of none-string types with spaces<br>
2838  - MySql now correctly converts enum columns to varchar
2839  </p><p>
2840  Ralf also changed Postgresql datadict:<br>
2841  - you cant add NOT NULL columns in postgres in one go, they need to be 
2842  added as NULL and then altered to NOT NULL<br>
2843  - AlterColumnSQL could not change a varchar column with numbers into an 
2844  integer column, postgres need an explicit conversation<br>
2845  - a re-created sequence was not set to the correct value, if the name 
2846  was the old name (no implicit sequence), now always the new name of the 
2847  implicit sequence is used<br>
2848  </p><p>Sergio Strampelli added extra $intoken check to Lens_ParseArgs() in datadict code.
2849  </p><p><a name="4.53"></a><b>4.53 28 Sept 2004</b>
2850  </p><p>FetchMode cached in recordset is sometimes mapped to native db fetchMode. Normally this does not matter,
2851  but when using cached recordsets, we need to switch back to using adodb fetchmode.  So we cache this
2852  in $rs-&gt;adodbFetchMode if it differs from the db's fetchMode.
2853  </p><p>For informix we now set canSeek = false driver because stefan bodgan tells me that seeking doesn't work. 
2854  </p><p>SetDateLocale() never worked till now ;-) Thx david#tomato.it
2855  </p><p>Set $_bindInputArray = true in sapdb driver. Required for clob support.
2856  </p><p>Fixed some PEAR::DB emulation issues with isError() and isWarning. Thx to Gert-Rainer Bitterlich.
2857  </p><p>Empty() used in getupdatesql without strlen() check. Fixed.</p>
2858  <p>Added unsigned detection to mysql and mysqli drivers. Thx to dan cech.
2859  </p><p>Added hungarian language file. Thx to Hal&aacute;szv&aacute;ri G&aacute;bor.
2860  </p><p>Improved fieldname-type formatting of datadict SQL generated (adding $widespacing parameter to _GenField).
2861  </p><p>Datadict oci8 DROP CONSTRAINTS misspelt. Fixed. Thx Mark Newnham.
2862  </p><p>Changed odbtp to dynamically change databaseType based on connection, eg. from 'odbtp' to 'odbtp_mssql' when connecting
2863  to mssql database.
2864  </p><p>In datadict, MySQL I4 was wrongly mapped to MEDIUMINT, which is actually I3. Fixed.
2865  </p><p>Fixed mysqli MetaType() recognition. Mysqli returns numeric types unlike mysql extension. Thx Francesco Riosa.
2866  </p><p>VFP odbc driver curmode set wrongly, causing problems with memo fields. Fixed.
2867  </p><p>Odbc driver did not recognize odbc version 2 driver date types properly. Fixed. Thx Bostjan.
2868  </p><p>ChangeTableSQL() fixes to datadict-db2.inc.php by Mark Newnham.
2869  </p><p>Perf monitoring with odbc improved. Now we try in perf code to manually set the sysTimeStamp using date() if sysTimeStamp
2870  is empty.
2871  </p><p>All ADO errors are thrown as exceptions in PHP5. 
2872  So we added exception handling to ado in PHP5 by creating new adodb-ado5.inc.php driver.
2873  </p><p>Added IsConnected(). Returns true if connection object connected. By Luca.Gioppo.
2874  </p><p>"Ralf Becker"
2875  RalfBecker#digitalROCK.de contributed new sapdb data-dictionary driver
2876  and a large patch that implements field and table renaming for oracle,
2877  mssql, postgresql, mysql and sapdb. See the new RenameTableSQL() and
2878  RenameColumnSQL() functions.
2879  </p><p>We now check ExecuteCursor to see if PrepareSP was initially called.
2880  </p><p>Changed oci8 datadict to use MODIFY for $dd-&gt;alterCol. Thx Mark Newnham.
2881  </p><p><a name="4.52"></a><b>4.52  10 Aug 2004</b>
2882  </p><p>Bug found in Replace() when performance logging enabled, introduced in ADOdb 4.50. Fixed.
2883  </p><p>Replace() checks update stmt. If update stmt fails, we now return immediately. Thx to alex.
2884  </p><p>Added support for $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE in GetUpdateSQL/GetInsertSQL. Thx to niko.
2885  </p><p>Added ADODB_ASSOC_CASE support to postgres/postgres7 driver.
2886  </p><p>Support for DECLARE stmt in oci8. Thx Lochbrunner.
2887  </p><p><a name="4.51"></a><b>4.51  29 July  2004</b>
2888  </p><p>Added adodb-xmlschema 1.0.2. Thx dan and richard.
2889  </p><p>Added new adorecordset_ext_* classes. If ADOdb extension installed for mysql, mysqlt and oci8 
2890  (but not oci8po),  we use the superfast ADOdb extension code for movenext.
2891  </p><p>Added schema support to mssql and odbc_mssql MetaPrimaryKeys().
2892  </p><p>Patched MSSQL driver to support PHP NULL and Boolean values 
2893  while binding the input array parameters in the _query() function. By Stephen Farmer.
2894  </p><p>Added support for clob's for mssql,  UpdateBlob(). Thx to gfran#directa.com.br
2895  </p><p>Added normalize support for postgresql (true=lowercase table name, or false=case-sensitive table names) 
2896  to MetaColumns($table, $normalize=true).
2897  </p><p>PHP5 variant dates in ADO not working. Fixed in adodb-ado.inc.php.
2898  </p><p>Constant ADODB_FORCE_NULLS was not working properly for many releases (for GetUpdateSQL). Fixed. 
2899  Also GetUpdateSQL strips off ORDER BY now - thx Elieser Le&atilde;o.
2900  </p><p>Perf Monitor for oci8 now dynamically highlights optimizer_* params if too high/low.
2901  </p><p>Added dsn support to NewADOConnection/ADONewConnection.
2902  </p><p>Fixed out of page bounds bug in _adodb_pageexecute_all_rows() Thx to "Sergio Strampelli" sergio#rir.it
2903  </p><p>Speedup of movenext for mysql and oci8 drivers.
2904  </p><p>Moved debugging code _adodb_debug_execute() to adodb-lib.inc.php.
2905  </p><p>Fixed postgresql bytea detection bug. See http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=9849.
2906  </p><p>Fixed ibase datetimestamp typo in PHP5. Thx stefan.
2907  </p><p>Removed whitespace at end of odbtp drivers.
2908  </p><p>Added db2 metaprimarykeys fix.
2909  </p><p>Optimizations to MoveNext() for mysql and oci8. Misc speedups to Get* functions.
2910  </p><p><a name="4.50"></a><b>4.50  6 July  2004</b>
2911  </p><p>Bumped it to 4.50 to avoid confusion with PHP 4.3.x series.
2912  </p><p>Added db2 metatables and metacolumns extensions.
2913  </p><p>Added alpha PDO driver. Very buggy, only works with odbc.
2914  </p><p>Tested mysqli. Set poorAffectedRows = true. Cleaned up movenext() and _fetch().
2915  </p><p>PageExecute does not work properly with php5 (return val not a variable). Reported Dmytro Sychevsky sych#php.com.ua.  Fixed.
2916  </p><p>MetaTables() for mysql, $showschema parameter was not backward compatible with older versions of adodb. Fixed.
2917  </p><p>Changed mysql GetOne() to work with mysql 3.23 when using with non-select stmts (e.g. SHOW TABLES).
2918  </p><p>Changed TRIG_ prefix to a variable in datadict-oci8.inc.php. Thx to Luca.Gioppo#csi.it.
2919  </p><p>New to adodb-time code. We allow you to define your own daylights savings function, 
2920  adodb_daylight_sv for pre-1970 dates. If the function is defined 
2921  (somewhere in an include), then you can correct 
2922  for daylights savings. See http://phplens.com/phpeverywhere/node/view/16#daylightsavings
2923  for more info.
2924  </p><p>New sqlitepo driver. This is because assoc mode does not work like other drivers in sqlite.
2925     Namely, when selecting (joining) multiple tables, in assoc mode the table
2926           names are included in the assoc keys in the "sqlite" driver.
2927        In "sqlitepo" driver, the table names are stripped from the returned column names. 
2928        When this results in a conflict,  the first field get preference.
2929      Contributed by Herman Kuiper  herman#ozuzo.net  
2930  </p><p>Added $forcenull parameter to GetInsertSQL/GetUpdateSQL. Idea by Marco Aurelio Silva.
2931  </p><p>More XHTML changes for GetMenu. By Jeremy Evans.
2932  </p><p>Fixes some ibase date issues. Thx to stefan bogdan.
2933  </p><p>Improvements to mysqli driver to support $ADODB_COUNTRECS.
2934  </p><p>Fixed adodb-csvlib.inc.php problem when reading stream from socket. We need to poll stream continiously.
2935  </p><p><a name="4.23"></a><b>4.23  16 June   2004</b>
2936  </p><p>
2937  New interbase/firebird fixes thx to Lester Caine.
2938  Driver fixes a problem with getting field names in the result array, and 
2939  corrects a couple of data conversions. Also we default to dialect3 for firebird.
2940  Also ibase sysDate property was wrong. Changed to cast as timestamp.
2941  </p><p>
2942  The datadict driver is set up to give quoted tables and fields as this 
2943  was the only way round reserved words being used as field names in 
2944  TikiWiki. TikiPro is tidying that up, and I hope to be able to produce a 
2945  build of THAT which uses what I consider proper UPPERCASE field and 
2946  table names. The conversion of TikiWiki to ADOdb helped in that, but 
2947  until the database is completely tidied up in TikiPro ...
2948  </p><p>Modified _gencachename() to include fetchmode in name hash.
2949  This means you should clear your cache directory after installing this release as the 
2950  cache name algorithm has changed.
2951  </p><p>Now Cache* functions work in safe
2952  mode, because we do not create sub-directories in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR
2953  in safe mode. In non-safe mode we still create sub-directories. Done by
2954  modifying _gencachename().
2955  </p><p>Added $gmt parameter (true/false)
2956  to UserDate and UserTimeStamp in connection class, to force conversion
2957  of input (in local time) to be converted to UTC/GMT.
2958  </p><p>Mssql datadict did not support INT types properly (no size param allowed). 
2959  Added _GetSize() to datadict-mssql.inc.php.
2960  </p><p>For borland_ibase, BeginTrans(), changed:<br>
2961  </p><pre>   $this-&gt;_transactionID = $this-&gt;_connectionID;</pre>
2962  to<br>
2963  <pre>   $this-&gt;_transactionID = ibase_trans($this-&gt;ibasetrans, $this-&gt;_connectionID);</pre>
2964          
2965  <p>Fixed typo in mysqi_field_seek(). Thx to Sh4dow (sh4dow#php.pl).
2966  </p><p>LogSQL did not work with Firebird/Interbase. Fixed.
2967  </p><p>Postgres: made errorno() handling more consistent. Thx to Michael Jahn, Michael.Jahn#mailbox.tu-dresden.de.
2968  </p><p>Added informix patch to better support metatables, metacolumns by "Cecilio Albero" c-albero#eos-i.com
2969  </p><p>Cyril Malevanov contributed patch to oci8 to support passing of LOB parameters:
2970  </p><pre>    $text = 'test test test';<br>    $sql = "declare rs clob; begin :rs := lobinout(:sa0); end;";<br>    $stmt = $conn -&gt; PrepareSP($sql);<br>    $conn -&gt; InParameter($stmt,$text,'sa0', -1, OCI_B_CLOB);<br>    $rs = '';<br>    $conn -&gt; OutParameter($stmt,$rs,'rs', -1, OCI_B_CLOB);<br>    $conn -&gt; Execute($stmt);<br>    echo "return = ".$rs."&lt;br&gt;";<br></pre>
2971  As he says, the LOBs limitations are:
2972  <pre> - use OCINewDescriptor before binding<br> - if Param is IN, uses save() before each execute. This is done automatically for you.<br> - if Param is OUT, uses load() after each execute. This is done automatically for you.<br> - when we bind $var as LOB, we create new descriptor and return it as a<br>   Bind Result, so if we want to use OUT parameters, we have to store<br>   somewhere &amp;$var to load() data from LOB to it.<br> - IN OUT params are not working now (should not be a big problem to fix it)<br> - now mass binding not working too (I've wrote about it before)<br></pre>
2973  <p>Simplified Connect() and PConnect() error handling.
2974  </p><p>When extension not loaded, Connect() and PConnect() will return null. On connect error, the fns will return false.
2975  </p><p>CacheGetArray() added to code.
2976  </p><p>Added Init() to adorecordset_empty().
2977  </p><p>Changed postgres64 driver, MetaColumns() to not strip off quotes in default value if :: detected (type-casting of default).
2978  </p><p>Added test: if (!defined('ADODB_DIR')) die(). Useful to prevent hackers from detecting file paths.
2979  </p><p>Changed metaTablesSQL to ignore Postgres 7.4 information schemas (sql_*).
2980  </p><p>New polish language file by  Grzegorz Pacan
2981  </p><p>Added support for UNION in _adodb_getcount().
2982  </p><p>Added security check for ADODB_DIR to limit path disclosure issues. Requested by postnuke team.
2983  </p><p>Added better error message support to oracle driver. Thx to Gaetano Giunta.
2984  </p><p>Added showSchema support to mysql.
2985  </p><p>Bind in oci8 did not handle $name=false properly. Fixed.
2986  </p><p>If extension not loaded, Connect(), PConnect(), NConnect() will return null.
2987  </p><p><b>4.22  15 Apr   2004</b>
2988  </p><p>Moved docs to own adodb/docs folder.
2989  </p><p>Fixed session bug when quoting compressed/encrypted data in Replace().
2990  </p><p>Netezza Driver and LDAP drivers contributed by Josh Eldridge.
2991  </p><p>GetMenu now uses rtrim() on values instead of trim().
2992  </p><p>Changed MetaColumnNames to return an associative array, keys being the field names in uppercase.
2993  </p><p>Suggested fix to adodb-ado.inc.php affected_rows to support PHP5 variants. Thx to Alexios Fakos.
2994  </p><p>Contributed bulgarian language file by Valentin Sheiretsky valio#valio.eu.org.
2995  </p><p>Contributed romanian language file by stefan bogdan.
2996  </p><p>GetInsertSQL now checks for table name (string) in $rs, and will create a recordset for that
2997  table automatically. Contributed by Walt Boring. Also added OCI_B_BLOB in bind on Walt's request - hope
2998  it doesn't break anything :-)
2999  </p><p>Some minor postgres speedups in _initrs().
3000  </p><p> ChangeTableSQL checks now if MetaColumns returns empty. Thx Jason Judge.
3001  </p><p>Added ADOConnection::Time(), returns current database time in unix timestamp format, or false.
3002  </p><p><b>4.21 20 Mar 2004</b>
3003  </p><p>We no longer in SelectLimit for VFP driver add SELECT TOP X unless an ORDER BY exists.
3004  </p><p>Pim Koeman contributed dutch language file adodb-nl.inc.php.
3005  </p><p>Rick Hickerson added CLOB support to db2 datadict.
3006  </p><p>Added odbtp driver. Thx to "stefan bogdan" sbogdan#rsb.ro.
3007  </p><p>Changed PrepareSP() 2nd parameter, $cursor, to default to true (formerly false). Fixes oci8 backward
3008  compat problems with OUT params.
3009  </p><p>Fixed month calculation error in adodb-time.inc.php. 2102-June-01 appeared as 2102-May-32.
3010  </p><p>Updated PHP5 RC1 iterator support. API changed, hasMore() renamed to valid().
3011  </p><p>Changed internal format of serialized cache recordsets. As we store a version number, this should be
3012  backward compatible.
3013  </p><p>Error handling when driver file not found was flawed in ADOLoadCode(). Fixed.
3014  </p><p><b>4.20 27 Feb 2004</b>
3015  </p><p>Updated to AXMLS 1.01.
3016  </p><p>MetaForeignKeys for postgres7 modified by Edward Jaramilla, works on pg 7.4.
3017  </p><p>Now numbers accepts function calls or sequences for GetInsertSQL/GetUpdateSQL numeric fields.
3018  </p><p>Changed quotes of 'delete from $perf_table' to "". Thx Kehui (webmaster#kehui.net)
3019  </p><p>Added ServerInfo() for ifx, and putenv trim fix. Thx Fernando Ortiz.
3020  </p><p>Added addq(), which is analogous to addslashes().
3021  </p><p>Tested with php5b4. Fix some php5 compat problems with exceptions and sybase.
3022  </p><p>Carl-Christian Salvesen added patch to mssql _query to support binds greater than 4000 chars.
3023  </p><p>Mike suggested patch to PHP5 exception handler. $errno must be numeric.
3024  </p><p>Added double quotes (") to ADODB_TABLE_REGEX.
3025  </p><p>For oci8, Prepare(...,$cursor),
3026  $cursor's meaning was accidentally inverted in 4.11. This causes
3027  problems with ExecuteCursor() too, which calls Prepare() internally.
3028  Thx to William Lovaton.
3029  </p><p>Now dateHasTime property in connection object renamed to datetime for consistency. This could break bc.
3030  </p><p>Csongor Halmai reports that db2 SelectLimit with input array is not working. Fixed..
3031  </p><p><b>4.11 27 Jan 2004</b>
3032  </p><p>Csongor Halmai reports db2 binding not working. Reverted back to emulated binding.
3033  </p><p>Dan Cech modifies datadict code. Adds support for DropIndex. Minor cleanups.
3034  </p><p>Table misspelt in perf-oci8.inc.php. Changed v$conn_cache_advice to v$db_cache_advice. Reported by Steve W.
3035  </p><p>UserTimeStamp and DBTimeStamp did not handle YYYYMMDDHHMMSS format properly. Reported by Mike Muir. Fixed.
3036  </p><p>Changed oci8 Prepare(). Does not auto-allocate OCINewCursor automatically, unless 2nd param is set to true.
3037  This will break backward compat, if Prepare/Execute is used instead of ExecuteCursor. Reported by Chris Jones.
3038  </p><p>Added InParameter() and OutParameter(). Wrapper functions to Parameter(), but nicer because they
3039  are self-documenting.
3040  </p><p>Added 'R' handling in ActualType() to datadict-mysql.inc.php
3041  </p><p>Added ADOConnection::SerializableRS($rs). Returns a recordset that can be serialized in a session.
3042  </p><p>Added "Run SQL" to performance UI().
3043  </p><p>Misc spelling corrections in adodb-mysqli.inc.php, adodb-oci8.inc.php and datadict-oci8.inc.php, from Heinz Hombergs.
3044  </p><p>MetaIndexes() for ibase contributed by Heinz Hombergs.
3045  </p><p><b>4.10 12 Jan 2004</b>
3046  </p><p>Dan Cech contributed extensive changes to data dictionary to support name quoting (with `), and drop table/index.
3047  </p><p>Informix added cursorType property. Default remains IFX_SCROLL, but you can change to 0 (non-scrollable cursor) for performance.
3048  </p><p>Added ADODB_View_PrimaryKeys() for returning view primary keys to MetaPrimaryKeys().
3049  </p><p>Simplified chinese file, adodb-cn.inc.php from cysoft.
3050  </p><p>Added check for ctype_alnum in adodb-datadict.inc.php. Thx to Jason Judge.
3051  </p><p>Added connection parameter to ibase Prepare(). Fix by Daniel Hassan.
3052  </p><p>Added nameQuote for quoting identifiers and names to connection obj. Requested by Jason Judge. Also the
3053  data dictionary parser now detects `field name` and generates column names with spaces correctly.
3054  </p><p>BOOL type not recognised correctly as L. Fixed.
3055  </p><p>Fixed paths in ADODB_DIR for session files, and back-ported it to 4.05 (15 Dec 2003)
3056  </p><p>Added Schema to postgresql MetaTables. Thx to col#gear.hu
3057  </p><p>Empty postgresql recordsets that had blob fields did not set EOF properly. Fixed.
3058  </p><p>CacheSelectLimit internal parameters to SelectLimit were wrong. Thx to Nio.
3059  </p><p>Modified adodb_pr() and adodb_backtrace() to support command-line usage (eg. no html).
3060  </p><p>Fixed some fr and it lang errors. Thx to Gaetano G.
3061  </p><p>Added contrib directory, with adodb rs to xmlrpc convertor by Gaetano G.
3062  </p><p>Fixed array recordset bugs when _skiprow1 is true. Thx to Gaetano G.
3063  </p><p>Fixed pivot table code when count is false.
3064  </p><p>
3065  
3066  </p><p><b>4.05 13 Dec 2003 </b>
3067  </p><p>Added MetaIndexes to data-dict code - thx to Dan Cech.
3068  </p><p>Rewritten session code by Ross Smith. Moved code to adodb/session directory.
3069  </p><p>Added function exists check on connecting to most drivers, so we don't crash with the unknown function error.
3070  </p><p>Smart Transactions failed with GenID() when it no seq table has been created because the sql
3071      statement fails. Fix by Mark Newnham.
3072  </p><p>Added $db-&gt;length, which holds name of function that returns strlen.
3073  </p><p>Fixed error handling for bad driver in ADONewConnection - passed too few params to error-handler.
3074  </p><p>Datadict did not handle types like 16.0 properly in _GetSize. Fixed.
3075  </p><p>Oci8 driver SelectLimit() bug &amp;= instead of =&amp; used. Thx to Swen Th&uuml;mmler.
3076  </p><p>Jesse Mullan suggested not flushing outp when output buffering enabled. Due to Apache 2.0 bug. Added.
3077  </p><p>MetaTables/MetaColumns return ref bug with PHP5 fixed in adodb-datadict.inc.php.
3078  </p><p>New mysqli driver contributed by Arjen de Rijke. Based on adodb 3.40 driver.
3079  Then jlim added BeginTrans, CommitTrans, RollbackTrans, IfNull, SQLDate. Also fixed return ref bug.
3080  </p><p>$ADODB_FLUSH added, if true then force flush in debugging outp. Default is false.  In earlier
3081  versions, outp defaulted to flush, which is not compat with apache 2.0.
3082  </p><p>Mysql driver's GenID() function did not work when when sql logging is on. Fixed.
3083  </p><p>$ADODB_SESSION_TBL not declared as global var. Not available if adodb-session.inc.php included in function. Fixed.
3084  </p><p>The input array not passed to Execute() in _adodb_getcount(). Fixed.
3085  </p><p><b>4.04 13 Nov 2003 </b>
3086  </p><p>Switched back to foreach - faster than list-each.
3087  </p><p>Fixed bug in ado driver - wiping out $this-&gt;fields with date fields.
3088  </p><p>Performance Monitor, View SQL, Explain Plan did not work if strlen($SQL)&gt;max($_GET length). Fixed.
3089  </p><p>Performance monitor, oci8 driver added memory sort ratio.
3090  </p><p>Added random property, returns SQL to generate a floating point number between 0 and 1;
3091  </p><p><b>4.03 6 Nov 2003 </b>
3092  </p><p>The path to adodb-php4.inc.php and adodb-iterators.inc.php was not setup properly.
3093  </p><p>Patched SQLDate in interbase to support hours/mins/secs. Thx to ari kuorikoski.
3094  </p><p>Force autorollback for pgsql persistent connections - 
3095  apparently pgsql did not autorollback properly before 4.3.4. See http://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=25404
3096  </p><p><b>4.02 5 Nov 2003 </b>
3097  </p><p>Some errors in adodb_error_pg() fixed. Thx to Styve.
3098  </p><p>Spurious Insert_ID() error was generated by LogSQL(). Fixed.
3099  </p><p>Insert_ID was interfering with Affected_Rows() and Replace()  when LogSQL() enabled. Fixed.
3100  </p><p>More foreach loops optimized with list/each.
3101  </p><p>Null dates not handled properly in ADO driver (it becomes 31 Dec 1969!).
3102  </p><p>Heinz Hombergs contributed patches for mysql MetaColumns - adding scale, made
3103  interbase MetaColumns work with firebird/interbase, and added lang/adodb-de.inc.php.
3104  </p><p>Added INFORMIXSERVER environment variable.
3105  </p><p>Added $ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF for interbase/firebird.
3106  </p><p>PHP 5 beta 2 compat check. Foreach (Iterator) support. Exceptions support.
3107  </p><p><b>4.01 23 Oct 2003 </b>
3108  </p><p>Fixed bug in rs2html(), tohtml.inc.php, that generated blank table cells.
3109  </p><p>Fixed insert_id() incorrectly generated when logsql() enabled.
3110  </p><p>Modified PostgreSQL _fixblobs to use list/each instead of foreach.
3111  </p><p>Informix ErrorNo() implemented correctly.
3112  </p><p>Modified several places to use list/each, including GetRowAssoc().
3113  </p><p>Added UserTimeStamp() to connection class.
3114  </p><p>Added $ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF for oci8po.
3115  </p><p><b>4.00 20 Oct 2003 </b>
3116  </p><p>Upgraded adodb-xmlschema to 1 Oct 2003 snapshot.
3117  </p><p>Fix to rs2html warning message. Thx to Filo.
3118  </p><p>Fix for odbc_mssql/mssql SQLDate(), hours was wrong.
3119  </p><p>Added MetaColumns and MetaPrimaryKeys for sybase. Thx to Chris Phillipson.
3120  </p><p>Added autoquoting to datadict for MySQL and PostgreSQL. Suggestion by Karsten Dambekalns  
3121  </p><p><b>3.94 11 Oct 2003 </b>
3122  </p><p>Create trigger in datadict-oci8.inc.php did not work, because all cr/lf's must be removed. 
3123  </p><p>ErrorMsg()/ErrorNo() did not work for many databases when logging enabled. Fixed.
3124  </p><p>Removed global variable $ADODB_LOGSQL as it does not work properly with multiple connections.
3125  </p><p>Added SQLDate support for sybase. Thx to Chris Phillipson
3126  </p><p>Postgresql checking of pgsql resultset resource was incorrect. Fix by Bharat Mediratta bharat#menalto.com.
3127  Same patch applied to  _insertid and _affectedrows for adodb-postgres64.inc.php.
3128  </p><p>Added support for NConnect for postgresql.
3129  </p><p>Added Sybase data dict support. Thx to Chris Phillipson  
3130  </p><p>Extensive improvements in $perf-&gt;UI(), eg. Explain now opens in new window, we show scripts
3131  which call sql, etc.
3132  </p><p>Perf Monitor UI works with magic quotes enabled.
3133  </p><p>rsPrefix was declared twice. Removed.
3134  </p><p>Oci8 stored procedure support, eg. "begin func(); end;" was incorrect in _query. Fixed.
3135  </p><p>Tiraboschi Massimiliano contributed italian language file.
3136  </p><p>Fernando Ortiz, fortiz#lacorona.com.mx, contributed informix performance monitor.
3137  </p><p>Added _varchar (varchar arrays) support for postgresql. Reported by PREVOT St&eacute;phane.
3138  </p><p><b>3.92 22 Sept 2003</b> 
3139  </p><p>Added GetAssoc and CacheGetAssoc to connection object.
3140  </p><p>Removed TextMax and CharMax functions from adodb.inc.php. 
3141  </p><p>HasFailedTrans() returned false when trans failed. Fixed. 
3142  </p><p>Moved perf driver classes into adodb/perf/*.php. 

3143  </p><p>Misc improvements to performance monitoring, including UI(). 

3144  </p><p>RETVAL in mssql Parameter(), we do not append @ now. 

3145  </p><p>Added Param($name) to connection class, returns '?' or ":$name", for defining 

3146    bind parameters portably. 

3147  </p><p>LogSQL traps affected_rows() and saves its value properly now. Also fixed oci8 

3148    _stmt and _affectedrows() bugs. 

3149  </p><p>Session code timestamp check for oci8 works now. Formerly default NLS_DATE_FORMAT 

3150    stripped off time portion. Thx to Tony Blair (tonanbarbarian#hotmail.com). Also 

3151    added new $conn-&gt;datetime field to oci8, controls whether MetaType() returns 

3152    'D' ($this-&gt;datetime==false) or 'T' ($this-&gt;datetime == true) for DATE type. 

3153  </p><p>Fixed bugs in adodb-cryptsession.inc.php and adodb-session-clob.inc.php. 

3154  </p><p>Fixed misc bugs in adodb_key_exists, GetInsertSQL() and GetUpdateSQL(). 

3155  </p><p>Tuned include_once handling to reduce file-system checking overhead. 

3156  </p><p><b>3.91 9 Sept 2003</b> 

3157  </p><p>Only released to InterAkt 

3158  </p><p>Added LogSQL() for sql logging and $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION to override factory 

3159    for driver instantiation. 

3160  </p><p>Added IfNull($field,$ifNull) function, thx to johnwilk#juno.com 

3161  </p><p>Added portable substr support. 

3162  </p><p>Now rs2html() has new parameter, $echo. Set to false to return $html instead 

3163    of echoing it. 

3164  </p><p><b>3.90 5 Sept 2003</b> 

3165  </p><p>First beta of performance monitoring released. 

3166  </p><p>MySQL supports MetaTable() masking. 

3167  </p><p>Fixed key_exists() bug in adodb-lib.inc.php 

3168  </p><p>Added sp_executesql Prepare() support to mssql. 

3169  </p><p>Added bind support to db2. 

3170  </p><p>Added swedish language file - Christian Tiberg" christian#commsoft.nu 

3171  </p><p>Bug in drop index for mssql data dict fixed. Thx to Gert-Rainer Bitterlich. 

3172  </p><p>Left join setting for oci8 was wrong. Thx to johnwilk#juno.com 

3173  </p><p><b>3.80 27 Aug 2003</b> 

3174  </p><p>Patch for PHP 4.3.3 cached recordset csv2rs() fread loop incompatibility. 

3175  </p><p>Added matching mask for MetaTables. Only for oci8, mssql and postgres currently. 

3176  </p><p>Rewrite of "oracle" driver connection code, merging with "oci8", by Gaetano. 

3177  </p><p>Added better debugging for Smart Transactions. 

3178  </p><p>Postgres DBTimeStamp() was wrongly using TO_DATE. Changed to TO_TIMESTAMP. 

3179  </p><p>ADODB_FETCH_CASE check pushed to ADONewConnection to allow people to define 

3180    it after including adodb.inc.php. 

3181  </p><p>Added portugese (brazilian) to languages. Thx to "Levi Fukumori". 

3182  </p><p>Removed arg3 parameter from Execute/SelectLimit/Cache* functions. 

3183  </p><p>Execute() now accepts 2-d array as $inputarray. Also changed docs of fnExecute() 

3184    to note change in sql query counting with 2-d arrays. 

3185  </p><p>Added MONEY to MetaType in PostgreSQL. 

3186  </p><p>Added more debugging output to CacheFlush(). 

3187  </p><p><b>3.72 9 Aug 2003</b> 

3188  </p><p>Added qmagic($str), which is a qstr($str) that auto-checks for magic quotes 

3189    and does the right thing... 

3190  </p><p>Fixed CacheFlush() bug - Thx to martin#gmx.de 

3191  </p><p>Walt Boring contributed MetaForeignKeys for postgres7. 

3192  </p><p>_fetch() called _BlobDecode() wrongly in interbase. Fixed. 

3193  </p><p>adodb_time bug fixed with dates after 2038 fixed by Jason Pell. http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=6980 

3194  </p><p><b>3.71 4 Aug 2003</b> 

3195  </p><p>The oci8 driver, MetaPrimaryKeys() did not check the owner correctly when $owner 

3196    == false. 

3197  </p><p>Russian language file contributed by "Cyrill Malevanov" cyrill#malevanov.spb.ru. 

3198  </p><p>Spanish language file contributed by "Horacio Degiorgi" horaciod#codigophp.com. 

3199  </p><p>Error handling in oci8 bugfix - if there was an error in Execute(), then when 

3200    calling ErrorNo() and/or ErrorMsg(), the 1st call would return the error, but 

3201    the 2nd call would return no error. 

3202  </p><p>Error handling in odbc bugfix. ODBC would always return the last error, even 

3203    if it happened 5 queries ago. Now we reset the errormsg to '' and errorno to 

3204    0 everytime before CacheExecute() and Execute(). 

3205  </p><p><b>3.70 29 July 2003</b> 

3206  </p><p>Added new SQLite driver. Tested on PHP 4.3 and PHP 5. 

3207  </p><p>Added limited "sapdb" driver support - mainly date support. 

3208  </p><p>The oci8 driver did not identify NUMBER with no defined precision correctly. 

3209  </p><p>Added ADODB_FORCE_NULLS, if set, then PHP nulls are converted to SQL nulls 

3210    in GetInsertSQL/GetUpdateSQL. 

3211  </p><p>DBDate() and DBTimeStamp() format for postgresql had problems. Fixed. 

3212  </p><p>Added tableoptions to ChangeTableSQL(). Thx to Mike Benoit. 

3213  </p><p>Added charset support to postgresql. Thx to Julian Tarkhanov. 

3214  </p><p>Changed OS check for MS-Windows to prevent confusion with darWIN (MacOS) 

3215  </p><p>Timestamp format for db2 was wrong. Changed to yyyy-mm-dd-hh.mm.ss.nnnnnn. 

3216  </p><p>adodb-cryptsession.php includes wrong. Fixed. 

3217  </p><p>Added MetaForeignKeys(). Supported by mssql, odbc_mssql and oci8. 

3218  </p><p>Fixed some oci8 MetaColumns/MetaPrimaryKeys bugs. Thx to Walt Boring. 

3219  </p><p>adodb_getcount() did not init qryRecs to 0. Missing "WHERE" clause checking 

3220    in GetUpdateSQL fixed. Thx to Sebastiaan van Stijn. 

3221  </p><p>Added support for only 'VIEWS' and "TABLES" in MetaTables. From Walt Boring. 

3222  </p><p>Upgraded to adodb-xmlschema.inc.php 0.0.2. 

3223  </p><p>NConnect for mysql now returns value. Thx to Dennis Verspuij. 

3224  </p><p>ADODB_FETCH_BOTH support added to interbase/firebird. 

3225  </p><p>Czech language file contributed by Kamil Jakubovic jake#host.sk. 

3226  </p><p>PostgreSQL BlobDecode did not use _connectionID properly. Thx to Juraj Chlebec. 

3227  </p><p>Added some new initialization stuff for Informix. Thx to "Andrea Pinnisi" pinnisi#sysnet.it 

3228  </p><p>ADODB_ASSOC_CASE constant wrong in sybase _fetch(). Fixed. 

3229  </p><p><b>3.60 16 June 2003</b> 

3230  </p><p>We now SET CONCAT_NULL_YIELDS_NULL OFF for odbc_mssql driver to be compat with 

3231    mssql driver. 

3232  </p><p>The property $emptyDate missing from connection class. Also changed 1903 to 

3233    constant (TIMESTAMP_FIRST_YEAR=100). Thx to Sebastiaan van Stijn. 

3234  </p><p>ADOdb speedup optimization - we now return all arrays by reference. 

3235  </p><p>Now DBDate() and DBTimeStamp() now accepts the string 'null' as a parameter. 

3236    Suggested by vincent. 

3237  </p><p>Added GetArray() to connection class. 

3238  </p><p>Added not_null check in informix metacolumns(). 

3239  </p><p>Connection parameters for postgresql did not work correctly when port was defined. 

3240  </p><p>DB2 is now a tested driver, making adodb 100% compatible. Extensive changes 

3241    to odbc driver for DB2, including implementing serverinfo() and SQLDate(), switching 

3242    to SQL_CUR_USE_ODBC as the cursor mode, and lastAffectedRows and SelectLimit() 

3243    fixes. 

3244  </p><p>The odbc driver's FetchField() field names did not obey ADODB_ASSOC_CASE. Fixed. 

3245  </p><p>Some bugs in adodb_backtrace() fixed. 

3246  </p><p>Added "INT IDENTITY" type to adorecordset::MetaType() to support odbc_mssql 

3247    properly. 

3248  </p><p>MetaColumns() for oci8, mssql, odbc revised to support scale. Also minor revisions 

3249    to odbc MetaColumns() for vfp and db2 compat. 

3250  </p><p>Added unsigned support to mysql datadict class. Thx to iamsure. 

3251  </p><p>Infinite loop in mssql MoveNext() fixed when ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC used. Thx to 

3252    Josh R, Night_Wulfe#hotmail.com. 

3253  </p><p>ChangeTableSQL contributed by Florian Buzin. 

3254  </p><p>The odbc_mssql driver now sets CONCAT_NULL_YIELDS_NULL OFF for compat with 

3255    mssql driver. 

3256  </p><hr>

3257  <p><strong>0.10 Sept 9 2000</strong> First release 

3258  </p><h3><strong>Old change log history moved to <a href="old-changelog.htm">old-changelog.htm</a>. 

3259    </strong></h3>

3260  <p>&nbsp;</p>

3261  <p>  

3262  </p></body></html>

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